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Plate Margins - Related Hazards.

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Introduction

H/W Geography 19th-10-00 Through out evolution mankind has always been threatened by all sorts of "Natural Disasters". The main types I will be talking about are Volcanoes and Tsunami. There are many types of volcanoes all over the world. There are mainly five types of volcanoes and they are Fissure, Central, Shield, Surface Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics and Calderas volcanoes. Fissure volcanoes are mostly associated with oceanic ridges, but they also can occur on land. In some cases they had some spectacular results. They emit large quantities of very fluid material, which spreads out to cover large areas; successive eruptions build up Great Plains or plateaux. Today these fissure volcanoes are best seen in Iceland, which straddles the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. However fissure volcanism on land is most associated with the past, with the great plateaux to be found on most continents. Plateau basalt's, flood basalt's, or ignimbrites, as they are called have formed amongst others, the Deccan Plateau of west-central India, the Parana Basin of southern Brazil and the list can go on. ...read more.

Middle

Shield volcanoes are very large structures that can be tens of kilometres in diameters, they usually have gentle slopes generally less than 12 degrees, they are usually formed by hundreds of outpourings of fluid, basaltic lava. These volcanoes usually have more than one vent. One can find the best place to find examples of these are along the Hawaiian Islands. The next type is about surface volcanoes, which are often associated with the destructive boundaries formed by tectonic plates, which are moving together. When two plates converge, the leading edge of one plunge's beneath that of the other towards the mantle, the semi-molten layer that underlies the lithosphere, the other continental crust. The earth's subduction zones lie mainly around the edge of the Pacific Ocean, and so do more than 3/4 of active, dormant or extinct surface volcanoes. They form a belt known as the "Ring of Fire", along which earthquakes are also common. The final type of volcano is the Calderas which is basically the crater through which the volcanic material emerges often remains as a depression even when the volcano is dormant, the result is lava sinks back into the volcanic vent. ...read more.

Conclusion

By the time it reaches the shore, it may become a towering wall of water 15 m (50 ft) high or more, capable of destroying entire coastal settlements. Tsunamis have erroneously been called tidal waves, but they have nothing to do with the diurnal pattern of high and low tides. Such waves, however, in combination with meteorological phenomena, can also sometimes be destructive and an example of this happened on a Caribbean island. Charlestown (St Kitts and Nevis), Nevis Island, St Kitts and Nevis, eastern Caribbean. Charlestown is the main settlement and port on Nevis Island and is situated on a bay on the western coast. The main industry in the area is sugar milling. Charlestown became the chief town on the island after Jamestown (the previous main settlement) was destroyed by a tidal wave in 1680. In the late 18th century Charlestown became a naval base and was almost destroyed by a fire in 1873. Notable buildings include Hamilton House, the birthplace of the 18th-century American statesman Alexander Hamilton, who was involved in drafting the Constitution of the United States, and the ruins of Montpelier Estate where Horatio Nelson was married. Population (1994) 1,411. By: Lowell Mason ...read more.

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