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Population Challenge

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POPULATION - A FUTURE CHALLENGE FOR AUSTRALIA Current and Future Australian Population Trends and their Implications Growth Rates Since the beginning of the 20th century, Australia's population has increased five-fold, this will increase to between 24-28 million in 50 year's time, with the pace falling in about ten years time (Figure1). The highest growth occurred after WWII and the lowest in the 1930s coinciding with the Great Depression (Table1). Natural increase has attributed to two-thirds of Australia's population; fertility and morality rates have undergone significant changes due to increasing proportions of couples restricting their family size to one, two or no kids at all and falls in mortality rates of children and of mothers in childbirth. The third factor contributing to population growth, overseas migration has fluctuated substantially playing a significant role in absolute numbers and the number of their children. Age Structure Throughout the last century the population has aged steadily, apart from a reversal in the 1947-1971's post-war baby boom. Projections indicate that Australia's population will continue to age, an inevitable result of low fertility levels and increasing life expectancy. ...read more.


As a result of this trend many smaller communities have experienced population growth. Urban Planning Meeting the needs of the current and future population represents a major challenge with the impact of future population growth falling disproportionately on the urban centre. These challenges include accommodation, infrastructure required by an expanding population, managing traffic congestion, minimising pollution, meeting social needs and promoting employment opportunities. To support this, the government is encouraging the construction of multi-unit housing departments with access to public transport (urban consolidation) and focus on higher residential densities. Australian Government Policies on Population Growth Rates, Refugees and Migration Population Growth Australia, like most developed countries, have an array of family policies designed to achieve social welfare objectives. Each policy helps rove financial obstacles to having children, as well as encouraging population growth. Baby Bonus In 2004, Treasurer Peter Costello introduced the Baby Bonus, a payment to the parents on the birth of each child. It has risen from $3000 from its commencement to $5000 in 2008. ...read more.


It was successful in reducing the amount of illegal entrants but received criticism from a number of non-governmental organisations claiming that Australia was failing to meets its international obligations. The policy ended when Kevin Rudd came into power. Migrants The original aim of the migration programs were for defence purposes but over the years it has shifted to social, humanitarian and economic objectives. Skilled Program Australia's resource industry continued to boom despite serious obstacles other developed economies faced by the GFC. Existing and new projects created thousands of skilled jobs which would have interested professionals from countries where unemployment was reaching high levels. The General Skilled Migration Program is for people who have skills or abilities that will contribute to the Australian economy. In 2009, 114 777 places were granted. Family Program The family program is for Australians who have close relatives such as parents, partners, spouses, children, siblings overseas they can sponsor them to come to Australia. In 2009, 56366 visas were granted. Humanitarian Program The Humanitarian Program fulfils Australia's international obligations by offering protection to people already in Australia and it expresses our commitment to refugee protection by offering resettlement to people overseas. In 2009, 13 507 visas were granted. ...read more.

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