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Revision notes on superpowers and the shifting balance of power.

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Introduction

Superpower Geographies A Superpower is a state with a leading position in the international system and the ability to influence events throughout the world. The concept of a superpower has developed to include Economic, Cultural, Geographical and Military influence. (E.G development of USA and the BRIC's) Power can be obtained through: capitalism = where land is privately owned 1) Size (land area) communism = socialism that abolishes 2) Population private ownership (they are 3) Resources (oil, coal) owned by state) 4) Military indicators 5) Economic Indicators 6) Religion/belief systems 7) Global Influence Wealth --> Allows superpowers to export their power around the world buy resources and influence trade patterns. ...read more.

Middle

USA --> Policy to globalise its sphere of influence and become a stronger player in the world. USSR --> (Unions of soviet specialist's republic) didn't agree with belief & politics of USA, USSR took advantage of collapsed countries in EU & Enforced a communist regime. However the Soviet Union began to collapse: * In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power. He reshaped the economy and allowed some private business in a process called Perestroika. * He allowed them more freedom however new policies caused food and medicine shortages. * His methods sparked demand for democracy in Eastern Europe. * 1989-1991 - states within the USSR claimed independence and the Soviet Union fell apart. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Countries have formed cartels. Case studies: OPEC, an oil cartel!! The organisation of petroleum exporting countries was established in 1960 to counter oil price cuts by USA and EU oil companies. * 1979 Opec countries produced 65% of world petroleum * 36% by 2007, decreased due to lack of excess pumping capacity. Growth of China ==> MEDC companies will invest in order to sell their products in an emerging market ==> Consumers benefit from cheap products that are mass produced in China ==> Could lead to a decline in US economy as India and china pay lower wages and produce goods more competitively ==> Western countries worried that Chinese influence in Africa is stronger than EU and USA ==> Increased environmental impact e.g. Transport emissions, acidification and poor air quality ...read more.

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