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Rio de Janeiro's Shanty Towns.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A MAP OF BRAZIL SHOWING THE AREAS IN THE STORY! Rio de Janeiro Shanty Towns Home life for people in the Favelas is very difficult. Most families have no water, electric light or toilets. They live and do their cooking in just one room, although most people who live in Favelas do have a television. To help people in Favelas a low-cost housing project of simple apartment blocks has been started to help families who live in Favelas. The blocks are built with stairs and no lofts to avoid expensive maintenance costs. Skyscrapers During the 20th century, Rio's old houses were torn down as large highways were built across the city. Once quiet streets became broad avenues choked with traffic. Towering office buildings soared, only to be torn down to make room for buildings that soared even higher! This is a picture of Skyscrapers in Rio De Janeiro on the coast! The Amazon Region Rainforest Seen from an aircraft, the rainforest is so dense with vegetation that the ground cannot be seen. The light falling on the rainforest canopy encourages the tops of the trees to grow thick and leafy. Mosses, orchids, climbing plants, vines and bromeliads all steal the light from the levels of forest beneath. The canopy almost forms a separate world where certain birds, monkeys and insects can live away from the rest of the forest. ...read more.

Middle

If too large an area were to be cut down and burnt, the soil would like open to heavy rainfall. Nutrients would be washed out of the soil and the soil itself would be at risk of being eroded or swept away. The Kayapo tribe of central Brazil limit this damage by planting varieties of sweet potato that are resistant to fire. By planting them before the burning takes place the potatoes are able to take up nutrients that would otherwise be washed away. The Kayapo also allow weeds to grow in order to hold on to nutrients and protect otherwise bare soil. They know which areas of the new plot are most suited to different plants, so vegetation quickly grows and protects the soil. The tribe spread natural fertilisers on to the cleared land. They use ash from the burnt trees and the nests of termites and biting ants, which are high in nutrients in order to control leaf cutter ants that would destroy their crops, the Kayapo plant a variety of banana tree as hedging. This is the home of a particular kind of wasp that drives ants away. The principal crop grown throughout Amazonia is manioc, which is used to make cassava bread - the staple diet of many tribes. In its natural state, manioc is poisonous, but by a process of soaking in water, grating and squeezing, it can be made edible. ...read more.

Conclusion

For clothing, some tribes use layers of fibre taken from under the bark of certain trees, but most Indians weave the soft fluffy fibres of wild or cultivated cotton on handmade looms. For decoration, the Indians select natural dyes from the forest, such as the red dye from the annatto plant and the blue dye from the genipa plant, and paint their bodies and clothes with them. Necklaces and bracelets are made from seeds, and head-dresses from bird feathers. The Healing Forest Over the centuries, the Indians have discovered that many of the rainforest plants make good medicines. Some can be used as painkillers, or to heal wounds and cure fevers, or for helping to reduce or increase people's ability to have children. Quinine, a substance that is found in the bark of cinchona tree, is used to treat the deadly disease malaria. Western scientists how to make quinine artificially and now it is manufactured on a large scale in factories. Another of the rainforest resources, curare, which tribes use to poison their arrowheads for hunting, can be used to relax the muscles of patients in surgical operations. Now that the importance of the rainforest as a source of new medicines is recognised in the industrialised countries, scientists have become concerned that the destruction of the rainforest will mean that many medicinal plants will become extinct. If the traditional lifestyles of the Indians disappear, their valuable knowledge of the rainforest will die too. Mining Development in Carajas This is a picture to do with the mining development in Carajas and the iron mining project. 1 ...read more.

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