• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

River Investigation

Extracts from this document...


Introduction Aims 1. To find out how channel characteristics such as width, depth, area, efficiency, gradient and bedload change downstream? 2. To find out how flow characteristics, such as velocity and discharge change downstream? Having studied rivers to a great extent at GCSE and A level I have decided to carry out a study on river processes and characteristics. I have chosen the River Brett as the location for my study due to its large drainage basin and varying stream orders, enabling me to carry out a wide ranging investigation. The River Brett is a tributary off the river Stour in Suffolk. The river Brett's total length is 100 km. Hypotheses In this investigation I am going to prove the following Hypotheses: 1) All of the river dimensions will increase downstream e.g. width, depth, area and radius. 2) All of the flow characteristics will increase downstream such as velocity and discharge due to a wider and deeper river. 3) Bedload size and shape will decrease downstream. Background and Theory of river processes 1. ...read more.


This is the slowest and least effective erosion process. Depositional Processes Deposition is where the velocity of a river looses its energy and is no longer able to carry it's load Material is deposited, starting with the largest particals. Deposition occurs when: * Discharge is reduced following a period of low precipitation. * Velocity is lessened on entering the sea or a lake * shallower water occurs on the inside of a meander * the load is suddenly increased (caused by an increase in farming or a landslide) * the river over flows its banks so that the velocity outside the channel is reduced ; resulting in a floodplain. Transportation Processes This is where excess energy is used to transport material down the river. As the velocity and turbulence increases, so does the ability to entrain materials. The load is transported by three main processes. * Bedload- This is where larger particals, which cannot be picked up by the current, are transported along the river bed. they are inturn transported in two ways: Saltation, where pebbles, sand and gravel are temporarily lifted up by the current and bounced along the bed in a hopping motion and Traction where cobbles and boulders are rolled along the bed. ...read more.


* Temperature- Extremes of temperature can restrict infiltration and so increase surface runoff. If evapotranspiration rates are high then there will be less water available to flow to the main river. * Land use- Urbanisation- Has an increased flood risk due to water being unable to infiltrate through the tarmac or concrete. Farming- Over cultivation of the land surronding a river may mean that tyhe soil is more easily eroded causing a build up of silt in the river and an increased risk of flooding. The loss of vegetation may also mean a higher flood rate as water will flow more easily through the soil. . * Vegetation- Large amounts of vegetation inhabiting the river, its banks and bed effects its velocity and therefore the amount of erosion. * Relief- A higher relief will mean that materials will flow faster down the river. * Geology How rivers work Precipitation ( River Basin Characteristics ( River Channel Characteristics -Relief, Shape, vegetation - Depth, width, velocity, relief, land use, Geology and soils, efficiency ( ( River Flow ( Energy Equation = 1/2 mv � ( Erosion River Processes ( Deposition ( Transportation ( ( River Load River Features - Oxbow lakes - Deltas - - - - - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. River channel processes.

    This means that the whole basin is managed, i.e. the states in which the water basin falls all work together to sustain the river and make plans together.

  2. The Causes Of Rainfall

    The downdraught causes the warm air supply to the chimney to reduce and so limits the duration of the storm. These storms usually have thunder and lightning. Lightning is thought to occur because as these ice crystals rise they crack due to compression of water on the inside of the ice shells.

  1. 'To what extent does the River Lyn conform to the Bradshaw model of River ...

    This will help work out other measurements, like the hydraulic radius. Hydraulic radius. Hydraulic radius is the proportion of water in a channel cross section which is in contact with the channel margin. The length of the wetted perimeter, bed length and banks in contact with the water influences it.

  2. How does the Efficiency and Cross-Sectional Area of a River Change Down Stream?

    to be correct. From graph 6, showing a correlation between velocity and hydraulic radius (see page 11), there is a positive correlation, but it is a weak one with a few anomalous results. I will repeat the spearman's rank correlation process to give me a more reliable correlation.

  1. Investigating the river Caerfanell

    Velocity still increases because of other dominant factors i.e. joining tributaries mounting the discharge and energy of water. The anomalies found on both graphs where the gradient measurement is slightly higher than expected. This is probably due to limitations of using the equipment.

  2. Does the river Alyn follow Bradshaw's model?

    - This graph came out with a slightly negative value for the correlation. This means that as the width increased the velocity decreased. This is due to the fact that when there is increased width there is more area in contact with the water causing greater friction and slowing the water down.

  1. My hypotheses are:The character of the course of the River Bollin will change along ...

    At 10:50am, we arrived at a small parking area next to an old dry stone wall, from where it was just a short walk over a bridge and to "Site 1, Macclesfield Forest". This was a very good example of a river source.

  2. I am going to study the characteristics of rivers and how they change as ...

    Only some of the problems were encountered when I was making my conclusion. LIMITATIONS OF METHODS: When measuring the river characteristics the main problem was the mud on the ground because it was raining heavily. The mud made the ground slippery and a few of my classmates fell on the slippery ground.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work