• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Road congestion.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

ROAD CONGESTION NICOLA ACTON 13JLB 'The increase in congestion on Britain's roads is an example of market failure' A) Why has there been an increase in congestion on British roads? B) Explain the term market failure and explain why road congestion is an example. C) Explain the method of road pricing and give both the advantages and disadvantage of road pricing as a way of dealing with the congestion problem. <A> The underlying causes of congestion are far more complicated than many traditional interests have historically been willing to admit. The ability of available roadway space-the most traditional method of measuring supply or capacity to meet traffic demand, is just one of a set of several underlying factors that research has found contribute to traffic congestion. Whereas more than half of all children walked or bicycled to school in the 1950s, that number has now fallen below 10 percent as streets have become more dangerous due to traffic. Combined with the loss of school bus service, the resulting trend has been an overwhelming increase in parents driving their children to school, clogging local roadways during critical peak hours. An estimated 20-25 percent of rush hour traffic on local streets and roads is now attributable to the school commute. To make matters worse, not only does the typical suburban development model characterized by low-density cul-de-sacs, wide, high-speed arterials, and massive intersections make traffic management difficult, ...read more.

Middle

Removing just 5% of traffic at peak times could substantially reduce or even eliminate rush hour congestion from many cities. One approach that is starting to stoke interest among municipal leaders is road pricing. The theory seems sound enough: introduce a price on bringing cars into congested areas that incite drivers either not to travel unnecessarily or to vary their times of travel or, indeed, to try public transport, walking or cycling. With the right approach, drivers who incur higher prices during rush hour periods would benefit from reduced congestion and travel time, while nonessential travel would take place at less congested and cheaper times. Road pricing has been debated in political circles for many years. The main debate was about the difficulties that would occur in trying to impose a system in order to toll drivers. These problems no longer exist, and advances in electronic devices have made sophisticated road pricing schemes more feasible. The new technology of electronic tolls no longer requires motorists to halt at tollbooths. Therefore, it prevents additional congestion. Drivers would be given an electronic number plate, which signals to the recording computer the presence of a vehicle. This would be the most direct way to charge the amount specific to the road and the time of the day. The devise could charge users via bank account or monthly bill. ...read more.

Conclusion

Economists would argue that the profits made should be reinvested into the transportation system to generate an efficient outcome rather than cross-subsidising other traffic modes or other state activities. CONCLUSION In conclusion I believe that road pricing is the best instrument to internalise the costs of congestion and road damage. Although the initial costs of installation are high, these costs would probably quickly be exceeded by the efficiency gains of corrected prices. Nevertheless, road pricing cannot perfectly internalise external environmental costs. That is why instruments like "fuel taxation" or "emission fees" will still be necessary to design an optimal price mechanism in the transportation sector that sets the correct incentives. I believe pricing could be the trick to remove that 5-10% of traffic that causes congestion in peak periods in our cities. If that means picking up the children on time and being able to drive into city centres to shop, then surely that would be a price worth paying. Finally, what's perhaps most important is a recognition that solving these problems will require strong leadership from a government level in addition to management, planning and eventual implementation at the regional and local levels. Traffic congestion must thus be tackled within a broader context of economic, environmental and social goals and its solutions must be compatible and work in support of solutions for a broader range of issues. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Population & Settlement section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Population & Settlement essays

  1. London Docklands - Has the regeneration been a success or a failure?

    There was a lot of empty land in 1981; around 60% of it was empty. This was worrying because even though it's close to the CBD, nobodies gets advantage of that land, and is left useless. The state of the docklands had to be improved to catch visitors.

  2. Explain why road congestion is a negative externality.

    Normal runoff of pollutants and debris from congestion of cars are contributors for the contamination of both surface and ground water. Congestion and transportation percentage of water pollution is 4%. Finally congestion can also induce stress and anxiety through road rage. Congestion in London is a form of market failure.

  1. Assessing noise pollution mainly from public transport and other motorists.

    Each year more vehicles are being used more frequently and this has a clear impact on the environment and the society. Noise pollution is an increasingly omnipresent, yet underestimated form of pollution. Long periods of exposure to relatively low levels of noise, can have adverse effects on human health, such

  2. Manchild - critical review

    By the early 1960s, many of Brown's generation are dead or in jail. However, Brown is spared the effects of "the shit plague" of heroin through the intervention of a then-drug-addicted friend, one of the few people in the book who subsequently kick their habit.

  1. Sao Paulo Research.

    In 1980, industry accounted for 40% of the jobs; now the figure is 15%. Factory jobs have been lost to other, cheaper parts of the country, to foreign lands and to Brazil's burgeoning agribusiness sector. Tens of thousands of workers, many of them poor, unschooled migrants from the north who

  2. The Inner-city-Problems and solving them

    Government Policies-solving the problems The problems listed above had obviously to be solved which took place in the late 1980's. They were on the whole designed to make the inner-city a much better place in which to live and work perhaps most importantly the atmosphere.

  1. Examine critically the GLA proposal to introduce congestion charging.

    Disabled badge holder will receive a 100% discount but they will have to register and pay the �10 fee. Others receiving a 100% discount are certain NHS vehicles and firefighters' operational vehicles.

  2. Road Traffic Accidents

    Unfortunately many drivers come across fog during their travels; in this case the safest things for them to do are tomove off the road to the hard shoulder and wait for it to lift. Stopping on the road increases the chances of being hit because others have no way of seeing, or avoiding, until it is too late.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work