• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Rock types.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

ROCK types * There are 3 types of rocks. *Igneous *Sedimentary *Metamorphic Igneous * Formed when molten magma from mantle is pushed out through the earth's crust often through volcanoes forming hard and layered rocks with speckled appearance. These contains minerals randomly arranged in large and interlocking crystals as magma cools slowly inside the earth's crust. The cooling produces rocks that always contain crystals. * 2 types: intrusive and extrusive rocks *Intrusive rocks formed when molten magma from mantle cools slowly (underground) inside the earth's crust forming rocks with large crystals such as that of granite's. Granite is a very hard and decorative stone ideal for steps and buildings. *Extrusive rocks formed when molten magma from mantle cools quickly above the earth's crust forming rocks with small crystals usually dark in colour such as that of basalt's. Sedimentary * formed from layers of sediments laid deep down inside lakes or seas over millions of years. The layers are cemented together by salt crystals. * Made up from fragments of older rocks that have been weathered or may have formed from the remains of living organisms. * Formed in layers and these may give additional evidence about the conditions they were formed and may show evidence on the wave ripples on their surface. S. Rocks with large and coarse-grained particles were probably deposited under active conditions, such as on a stormy beach S. ...read more.

Middle

B. Slate [squashed mudstone] - as mudstone is heated and compressed a lot, its tiny particles align in the same direction which allows slate to be split into thin sheets in that direction making it an ideal roofing material. C. Schist [heated mudstone]- as mudstone is heated a lot and compressed, new minerals like mica start to form the rock schist containing a band of interlocking crystals. ROCK cycle - takes millions of years to complete! * The amount of rock on earth is always about the same, even though it is weathered away. * Involves changing the 3 types of rock - IGNEOUS, SEDIMENTARY and METAMORPHIC from one form to another. * This happens by the following processes: 1. WEATHERING: the breakdown of rocks 2. TRANSPORATION: movement of the eroded rock bits round the world by wing and water. 3. DEPOSITION: sediment being laid down. 4. BURIAL / COMPRESSION: squeezing and compressing the layers - which eventually form sedimentary rocks. 5. HEAT/PRESSURE: the rocks being further heated and squashed which turns rocks into metamorphic rocks. 6. MELTING: by intense heating, the rock completely melts that forms igneous rocks. 7. COOLING: the molten rock solidifying. Geological Changes * This involves changes to rocks both inside and outside the Earth's crust. What is WEATHERING? * Breakdown of rocks into smaller bits. * There are 3 types of Weathering. ...read more.

Conclusion

and sodium carbonate to make (soda glass) used in windows. * Heated with sand (silicon oxide), sodium carbonate and boron oxide to make borosilicate glass such as Pyrex which are harder then soda glass. * Mixed with iron ore and coke to form the charge which is loaded into a blast furnace. The limestone reacts with the high melting point non-metal impurities in the iron ore to form a molten slag which floats on top of the iron. * Mining and Quarrying which creates visual pollution as ugly slag heaps are created which scar the landscape. They cause dust and smoke pollution and generate a lot of heavy traffic because of the transportation of rocks. Cement * Produced by roasting powered limestone with powdered clay in a rotary furnace. * When cement is mixed with water, sand and crushed rock, a slow chemical reaction produces a hard, stone-like building material called concrete. Cement + water + sand + crushed rock � concentre (stone like building material) Glass * Made by heating a mixture of limestone, sand and sodium carbonate (soda). * Used in industry to make bottles, containers etc. Erosion * The wearing away of exposed rocks. Transport * The process of carrying away the rock fragments, either falling away due to gravity or being carried away by rivers. * The rocks travelling down rivers get worn down as they go and they also wear away the river bed causing river valleys. The Grand Canyon is a grand example. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Rocks & Weathering section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Rocks & Weathering essays

  1. Sedimentary Rocks

    better preserved, such as the shells and bones, and these have to be extracted carefully form the materials around them. You would expect to find fossils in igneous rocks because they are formed from molten mixed up magma. Fossils would not survive in such conditions.

  2. What Really Happened at Pompeii on 24th August AD79?

    Pliny described a very strange phenomenon in his account. Writing to his friend Tacitus, he wrote, 'A cloud was rising up; in form it most resembled a pine-tree. It rose vertically, in fact, like a very tall trunk and then spread out as if in branches.

  1. Determining the paleoenviroment and tectonic history of a small area (Cocklawburn Beach)

    This layer will have been formed as the sea levels fell and fine sediment from the land will have been deposited on the sea floor. Bed 3: This bed has a thickness of 4 metres. It is composed of siltstone interbedded with mud, the grain size is silt and there

  2. 'I think that sedimentary stones will be more affected by weathering than igneous stones.' ...

    In costal areas there is also another type of biotic weathering where limpets secrete acid onto rocks. This is significant because lichens do the same thing and what we must therefore decide is whether lichens do more damage to rocks than they do by protecting their surface to the weather.

  1. A Geological Report on the Permo-Triassic of Chester.

    The red rock have probably been oxidised, and for this process to occur, high temperatures are needed suggesting that it was once a desert environment. It seems that sediments have been blown to conform into current beds and this presence of current beds along with intermittent beds suggests desert sands.

  2. Construct two Graphic Log Sections, one on the eastern exposure (ST 3375 6645) and ...

    Banding shows differing layers in texture of colour. 9 Limestone Corals, bivalves and slikenslides. This limestone was probably formed in relatively shallow water as a reef. The evidence for this is, the fossils that are found within it, corals and bivalves. Slickensides happen when the surface of the rock has become polished or striated from the grinding or sliding motion of an adjacent rock mass.

  1. Compare and Contrast the Weathering Found in an Area of Limestone Country with that ...

    The longer the water is held against the limestone, the deeper the shake hole will be. They are approximately 3 metres in diameter and one to three metres deep, and may occur in groups where the glacier has been heaviest.

  2. Dovedale - Limestone rocks.

    Karst offers opportunities for scientific study and education, allowing us a window into past environments that may not have changed for thousands of years.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work