Settlement Processes & Patterns - The Burgess Model (1924).
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Geography - Settlement Processes & Patterns - Urban Models 29/03/03 Page One The Burgess Model (1924) Burgess was collecting data about the social conditions in Chicago, USA and whilst doing this was able to identify and summarise the structure of the city. Chicago was suitable for this model because the rapid growth of its industries was attracting migrants from within the USA and from the rest of the world. The model is "circular" based, with the Central Business District (CBD) in the middle. Surrounding the CBD is the inner city and residential areas. On the outside of the model, the Urban-Rural fringe can be found. 1 - The CBD 2 - Inner City 3 - Inner Residential suburbs or low income residential 4 - Outer residential suburbs or high income residential 5 - Urban-rural fringe The strengths of The Burgess Model... * The Burgess Model is very simplified and as a result it is easy to understand. * It is capable of being refined and adapted to various scenarious/cities. The main weaknesses of The Burgess Model... * Assumptions are made which may not reflect how it is in reality, such as uniform physical and/or human conditions over wide areas. * Characteristics that are identified can change significantly with time.
* The model cannot be applied to a map, unlike The Robson Model (see next page). Geography - Settlement Processes & Patterns - Urban Models 29/03/03 Page Four The Robson Model (1963) Robson tried to apply the US models to the layout and land uses found in the UK city of Sunderland. Basic land features such as rivers and coastal areas are allowed for in The Robson Model. Something to note in the following diagram is the large quantities of low and medium classed housing. Also observe the industrial areas are situated along the river bank. What are the strengths of the model... * The model can be "overlaid" onto a map to give the viewer a better overview of how the city is laid out and the reasons for it being this way. * Geographical features such as rivers and coastal regions can be included in the diagram. What are the main weaknesses of the model... * The model begins to become more complex. It is not a good model for those who want a quick overview of what a city is like. Geography - Settlement Processes & Patterns - Urban Models 29/03/03 Page Five SAO PAULO CASE STUDY 1)
An inadequate road system is mainly a economic problem as it will cost the city money to maintain these "badly placed" roads, even if they are not being used. 2) What are the benefits to Brazil of having this large urban settlement? The benefits to Brazil of having a large urban settlement such as Sao Paulo are that the city attracts foreign investors to the country. Businesses may wish to set up in Sao Paulo and begin trading there, this in turn brings money into the country and helps boost Brazil's economy. Sao Paulo is most likely a "primate city", which means it is twice as large (in population) than the second largest city in Brazil. Not only do primate cities dominate a country in size, they also dominate in the level of commerce, industry, services and wealth they obtain. Governments of countries which have a primate city often plough money into these cities in order to try to regenerate any run-down areas, and to continue to attract the foreign investors so that the city continues to grow and make money for the country. A city of Sao Paulo's size (25m people) can create a lot of wealth for a country. Sao Paulo is the 5th largest city in the world, so businesses are likely to "set-up shop" in a city where there are lots of people (as people equal customers).
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