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Smog is a kind of air pollution and is caused by a mixture of smoke and sulphur dioxide

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Introduction

Smog is a kind of air pollution and is a mixture of smoke, fog, air and other chemicals. Smog produced through a complex set of photochemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight that result in the production of ozone. Smog tends to form in large cities and is favored by lack of wind. It is most likely to occur when there is a temperature inversion. Normally within the troposphere the temperature decreases with altitude, taking the pollutants with warm air all the way up it is replaced by cleaner cooler air. However, sometimes atmospheric conditions cause layer of still warm air to cover of cooler air. Pollutants would stay trapped and cannot rise. If these pollutants are near the ground it can increase dangerous levels. Smog-forming pollutants come from many sources, such as automobile exhausts, power plants, factories, and many consumer products. Even an erupting volcano can emit high levels of sulfur dioxide, creating volcanic smog. There are two kinds of smog; winter time (reducing) ...read more.

Middle

* All of these chemicals are usually highly reactive and oxidizing * Photochemical smog is travels with the wind, so it can affect sparsely populated areas Formation of secondary pollutants in photochemical smog * During the early morning rush hour there is a build up of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from car exhaust. When the sun comes out the nitrogen dioxide absorbs sunlight and breaks down to form nitric oxide and oxygen radicals. * Nitric oxide can remove ozone by reacting with it to form nitrogen dioxide and oxygen * Oxygen radicals react with oxygen to form Ozone and with water to form Hydroxyl radicals * These secondary photochemical oxidants can react with a variety of molecules including nitrogen oxides to form nitric acid and hydrocarbons to form peroxides ROOR, aldehydes RCHO, and ketones RCOR. * Peroxides are extremely reactive, and a chain reaction can occur when they react with nitrogen dioxide to form peroxyacylnitrates, PANs which cause eye irritants and plaint toxicity * The result, then, is an accumulation of ozone and volatile organic compounds such as PAN. ...read more.

Conclusion

levels caused by ground-level ozone Health effects of different Air Quality Index (AQI) levels caused by ground-level ozone Category AQI Ozone(O3) Very Good 0 - 15 No health effects are expected in healthy people. Good 16 - 31 No health effects are expected in healthy people. Moderate 32 - 49 Respiratory irritation in sensitive people during vigorous exercise; people with heart/lung disorders at some risk; damage to very sensitive plants. Poor 50 - 99 Sensitive people may experience irritation when breathing and possible lung damage when physically active; people with heart/lung disorders at greater risk; damage to some plants. Very Poor 100 or over Serious respiratory effects, even during light physical activity; people with heart/lung disorders at high risk; more vegetation damage. How to reduce smog? Reduce energy use, for example: * Use alternative transportation: walking, cycling and using public transit systems * Drive within the speed limit * Use fluorescent or energy-saving incandescent lighting * Use oil-based paints and solvents: gasoline and mineral spirit * Buy energy-efficient appliances Generally, Since smog is primarily a result of fuel burning, reducing energy use and making wise buying decisions we can all contribute to cleaner air and healthier life. ...read more.

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