• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Smog is a kind of air pollution and is caused by a mixture of smoke and sulphur dioxide

Extracts from this document...


Smog is a kind of air pollution and is a mixture of smoke, fog, air and other chemicals. Smog produced through a complex set of photochemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight that result in the production of ozone. Smog tends to form in large cities and is favored by lack of wind. It is most likely to occur when there is a temperature inversion. Normally within the troposphere the temperature decreases with altitude, taking the pollutants with warm air all the way up it is replaced by cleaner cooler air. However, sometimes atmospheric conditions cause layer of still warm air to cover of cooler air. Pollutants would stay trapped and cannot rise. If these pollutants are near the ground it can increase dangerous levels. Smog-forming pollutants come from many sources, such as automobile exhausts, power plants, factories, and many consumer products. Even an erupting volcano can emit high levels of sulfur dioxide, creating volcanic smog. There are two kinds of smog; winter time (reducing) ...read more.


* All of these chemicals are usually highly reactive and oxidizing * Photochemical smog is travels with the wind, so it can affect sparsely populated areas Formation of secondary pollutants in photochemical smog * During the early morning rush hour there is a build up of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from car exhaust. When the sun comes out the nitrogen dioxide absorbs sunlight and breaks down to form nitric oxide and oxygen radicals. * Nitric oxide can remove ozone by reacting with it to form nitrogen dioxide and oxygen * Oxygen radicals react with oxygen to form Ozone and with water to form Hydroxyl radicals * These secondary photochemical oxidants can react with a variety of molecules including nitrogen oxides to form nitric acid and hydrocarbons to form peroxides ROOR, aldehydes RCHO, and ketones RCOR. * Peroxides are extremely reactive, and a chain reaction can occur when they react with nitrogen dioxide to form peroxyacylnitrates, PANs which cause eye irritants and plaint toxicity * The result, then, is an accumulation of ozone and volatile organic compounds such as PAN. ...read more.


levels caused by ground-level ozone Health effects of different Air Quality Index (AQI) levels caused by ground-level ozone Category AQI Ozone(O3) Very Good 0 - 15 No health effects are expected in healthy people. Good 16 - 31 No health effects are expected in healthy people. Moderate 32 - 49 Respiratory irritation in sensitive people during vigorous exercise; people with heart/lung disorders at some risk; damage to very sensitive plants. Poor 50 - 99 Sensitive people may experience irritation when breathing and possible lung damage when physically active; people with heart/lung disorders at greater risk; damage to some plants. Very Poor 100 or over Serious respiratory effects, even during light physical activity; people with heart/lung disorders at high risk; more vegetation damage. How to reduce smog? Reduce energy use, for example: * Use alternative transportation: walking, cycling and using public transit systems * Drive within the speed limit * Use fluorescent or energy-saving incandescent lighting * Use oil-based paints and solvents: gasoline and mineral spirit * Buy energy-efficient appliances Generally, Since smog is primarily a result of fuel burning, reducing energy use and making wise buying decisions we can all contribute to cleaner air and healthier life. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. Atmospheric Pollution – an Environmental Law Essay

    Therefore, they have to bind their policies with one another and establish a sustainable method in which to provide both for the present, and the growing nation. Consequently, on the whole, the implementation of policies and legislation appear to be having a generally good effect on the atmospheric pollution level in Britain.

  2. The Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health

    Photochemical smog can be found over cities in the form of a brownish cloud on sunny days. This gas damages crops and trees and at its peak it can irritate the eyes. Large cities and tropical Amazon forests can produce high levels of photochemical smog.

  1. Ecosystems at Risk - the Great Barrier Reef

    beauty and has been recognized so by the heritage listing and the preservation from threats such as oil spills, overfishing and climate change.

  2. Ozone (O3) is an allotropic form of oxygen with three atoms in each molecule. ...

    Wolff 1926 Cancer's relationship with the lack of oxygen is explained by Dr. Otto Warberg, hence paving the way towards the utilization of ozone in overcoming cancer 1983 During the 6th World Ozone Conference held in Washington in May, the following benefits of ozone were disclosed: - removes dangerous

  1. The effects of air pollution on children

    Incidentally, personal tobacco smoking during periods of high ozone exposure doubled the risk of asthmatic individual needing to go to emergency room for treatment of asthma symptoms. Carbon Monoxide (CO) CO is a colourless, odourless gas, is a by-product of combustion, when there is not enough oxygen present in the air.

  2. Photochemical smog.

    Another primary pollutant is nitrogen oxide (NOx) contained in flue gases. Fuels contain compounds of nitrogen, formed from proteins contained in organisms. When the fuel is burnt, these nitrogen compounds are oxidised to form what is called fuel NOx. Also, at high temperature of combustion, atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen combine to form what is called thermal NOx.

  1. Air pollution - Accurate identification of activities and legislation which reduce the harmful effects.

    We can all adapt our lifestyles, and help to change any organisations we are involved with to respond to the air quality challenge. Industry Despite significant cuts in emissions from many sectors, industry is still a major source of some air pollutants.

  2. Photochemical smog.

    Where there is plentiful sunlight then a number of reactions will take place; NO2(g) hv NO(g) + O� (g) The oxygen radical formed will react with an oxygen molecule to form tropospheric (the lowest region of the atmosphere between the earth's surface and the tropopause, characterized by decreasing temperature with increasing altitude)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work