• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Stadium report. A stadiums presence has a vast range of effects on those in the immediate locality. Social, economic, environmental and hedonic effects are the main criteria this report will address. My argument follows the lines of there being both po

Extracts from this document...


Introduction Stadium development and reconstruction has been a common practice throughout history, and since the turn of the millennium, the relocation of stadiums, due to various economic and bureaucratic requirements, has increased. The fundamental question concerning this report is; what constitutes an 'externality'? A solid definition: "an externality is an effect of a purchase or use decision by one set of parties on others who did not have a choice and whose interests were not taken into account" 1. For this report the 'purchase or use decision' applies to the relocation and expansion of stadia, and the 'effects' on 'others' consist of the costs and benefits to the local area and beyond (national, global etc.). One might also refer to them as 'spillover costs/benefits'. A stadium's presence has a vast range of effects on those in the immediate locality. Social, economic, environmental and hedonic effects are the main criteria this report will address. My argument follows the lines of there being both positive and negative externalities involved, with the positives being dominant. The stadiums used in this report are: New Wembley Stadium Emirates Stadium City of Manchester Stadium 2012 Olympic Stadium (proposed) New Anfield (proposed) This report has been compiled with the collection of secondary data from books and websites, complemented by an investigation of all the externalities involved. ...read more.


This is hence a negative externality. By this evidence it is apparent that in most cases the impact of stadia on an area's social (and environmental) quality is more positive than negative. The relocation of stadia can bring status, prestige and wealth to area they are situated in. However, this does not mean that costs and negative externalities are not present. Below is a bar chart illustrating the initial construction costs for each ground: The New Wembley's costs, as shown by the table, are conspicuously high, primarily due to a notorious dispute with the building contractors. This forced the costs to run 50% over budget in 2007 with a pre-tax loss of �53.3million. The stadium also lost �22million in its first year of operation14. The debtors included the Football Association, Multiplex and most importantly, Wembley National Stadium Ltd. __________________________________________ 6 http://www.whathappenedlastnight.net/manchester/casinos-and-gambling.php 7 www.designbuild-network.com 8 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/6312707.stm 9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wembley_Stadium 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emirates_Stadium 11 http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/18062008/4/olympic-venues-cost-106m.html 12 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_of_Manchester_Stadium 13 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_anfield 14 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/international/england/2301729/Wembley-stadium-hit-by-pre-tax-loss-of-andpound53m.html Yet, one must look at the 'others' outlined in the definition; those not directly involved. One interesting point is that the problem is not only rooted in finance but also in reputation, with damage done to the status and perceived reliability of the UK construction industry - including those industries not involved in Wembley's construction. There is also the fear that the burden of financing the stadium could undermine the FA's core function of supporting grassroots football in England. ...read more.


Crime is also markedly reduced, largely due to the orderly nature imposed following local regeneration, as well as specialist schemes such as 'kickz' and Wembley's policy to make Brent more environmentally sound. Despite this, different stadiums also have varying costs, and, as is shown by Wembley, the feud with the contractors alarmingly increased the expenditure and prolonged the date for completion. This suggests that conflict can be a large hindrance concerning stadium construction, having a substantial affect on the economic structure of a locality. Nonetheless, most stadiums are constructed with few hurdles, and the balance between the costs and benefits, by means of regeneration and monetary gain in the area, is optimal. This is still not a fixed rule, however, taking into account the conflict of opinion regarding the aesthetics of the 2012 Olympic Stadium. Yet, it is also clear that the subjective opinions of various tabloids and other opinionated niches have no bearing on the actual construction of the stadium. By the evidence collected it can be assumed that both positive and negative externalities are indeed produced by stadium relocation and expansion, yet there are more positive ones than negatives. Stadia relocation not only brings economic, social and regeneration benefits to the areas they are situated in but also to the area they have departed, as is the case with Highbury. Although the costs are high, it could be argued that the benefits to the local area, and of course, to the grounds themselves, are indeed worthy of this. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Production - Location & Change section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Production - Location & Change essays

  1. The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its ...

    Like that from rainfall, acidic soil development from decaying organic matter is insignificant in the short term. The soil pH can be managed by soil amendment: * Decrease acidity by adding agriculture lime. * Decrease alkalinity by adding acid forming fertilizer such as sulphate of ammonia.

  2. The De-industrialisation and Regeneration of the Merseyside Region

    Over the last 20 years the government has addressed this problem of unemployment due to de-industrialisation by identifying special development areas that have been given assistance in developing alternative employment, usually in the new high technology industries. Under EU regional guidelines there are three tiers of assisted areas, with Merseyside (including the Wirral)

  1. What is meant by the terms core and periphery?

    This policy is more likely to succeed if the industries are labour intensive. The concept of cumulative causation is negative in its effect. The wealthy core draws the investment and employment away from the peripheral areas increasing the divide and promoting a divergent economic development.

  2. "Can the theories that Alfred D. Chandler developed in his book 'Scale and Scope: ...

    Among the most promising of these high-tech industries are the bio- and nanotechnology industries and some fields of the computer and internet industry (e.g. Foster M.J. 2000). Other important fields will profit form demographic shifts in the main industrial nations.

  1. How and why has the employment structure changed since 1945 within the UK?

    As primary industries are shrinking in size, this affects secondary industries as they provide them with raw materials to work with. Pre 1940s, the UK had many products to offer the world but as technology developed in places such as Japan, the UK slowly had less to offer and so many countries do not buy our products.

  2. Discuss the use of Parathion and its affects on the wider social and environmental ...

    This led to the invention of Parathion or the infamous 'nerve gas', which was widely used during the war. At the end of the war, German allies took over the patent and marketed Parathion liberally throughout the world under different brand names.

  1. Case Analysis: Longe Industries v. Archco, JNRP

    units sold by Longe and in turn proved a detriment to Longe Industries. A challenge that Longe could face is their ability to provide evidence distinguishing a breach of contract from fraud. The subsequent actions taken by the defendants, i.e.

  2. Interdependence Report – Cambodia (Kampuchea)

    Literacy rates for the total population are 35% (This takes into account persons over 15 years who can read and write). For all the population, women's literacy rate drops to 22%, while men are on 42%. All the above statistics explicitly take into consideration, death linked to or as a

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work