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Studying rivers - The river that I will be study is the river Goyt in the Peak District.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Hydrological cycle is the continuous cycle of water between the land, sea and atmosphere. A River is a very important part of the hydrological cycle; it is a form of surface run-off. For this course work I will be studying rivers. The river that I will be study is the river Goyt in the Peak District. The river Goyt is a tributary of the river Mersey. For this study I will be investigating the discharge of the River Goyt. Discharge is the volume of water flowing though section of a river at a given time. There are many factors that affect discharge such as: Soil permeability: if the soil is not able to absorb water there will be more surface run-off, which increases discharge. Rock type: if the rocks are impermeable then through flow and ground water flow as rainfall will not be able to infiltrate the rock. This creates more surface run-off, which increases discharge. Natural vegetation: if there is more vegetation the precipitation will be intercepted. Land Use: if there is tarmac or concrete then the ground becomes impermeable. Use of river: if water is extracted from the river for domestic and industry uses then there is less water in the river so there is a lower discharge. Drainage density: if there are fewer streams then less water is collected so the discharge decreases. Relief: if there are steeper slopes then the water flows faster thus the velocity increases and so does the discharge. ...read more.

Middle

River 9.3 0.537634 Deep Clough 6.6 0.757576 Pack Horse Bridge 9 0.555556 Berry Clough 17.5 0.285714 Derbyshire Bridge 7.6 0.657895 I then calculated the discharger for each site using the formula Discharge = cross-sectional area * average velocity Location Cross-sectional area Average velocity Discharge R. Goyt 1.9 sq/m 0.537634 1.0215046 Deep Clough 1.5 sq/m 0.757576 1.136364 Pack Horse Bridge 2.1 sq/m 0.555556 1.1666676 Berry Clough 0.9 sq/m 0.285714 0.2571426 Derbyshire Bridge 1.4 sq/m 0.657895 0.921053 As I had said in my in introduction Derbyshire bridge + Berry Clough = packhorse bridge. And, Packhorse Bridge + Deep Clough = River Goyt As you can see from my diagram, the discharge of Derbyshire Bridge is 0.92 cumecs. The discharge for Berry Clough is 0.25 cumecs. Both of these discharges added together almost equal Pack Horse Bridge's discharge of 1.15 cumecs. The discharge of Pack Horse Bridge is 1.15 cumecs. This added to Deep Clough's discharge of 1.13 cumecs, does not equal the discharge of River Goyt. Factors that affect discharge * Precipitation rate- this affect discharge because if there is more precipitation the volume of water in the river increases which in turn increases discharge * Evaporation rate- if more water is being evaporated from the river then the volume of water in the river decreases which in turn decreases discharge * Geology- if the bed rock is porous then more water will infiltrate the rock decreases the volume of water in the river. ...read more.

Conclusion

The layers of carboniferous grits and shales reach their highest point at Shining Tor (559 metres). Evaluation My hypothesis seems to be incorrect when looking at the discharge for pack horse Bridge, deep Clough and river Goyt discharges. This is because the Packhorse Bridge and deep Clough discharges do not equal the river Goyt discharge. When we were measure the velocity of the river Goyt it was raining. But when we were measuring the others it was not. This may have affected the speed at which the twig travelled. Our method for measuring the velocity was not very reliable, because the twigs may not have all been the same size and weight, this too will have affected the speed at which it travelled. We used a stopwatch time how long it took for the twig to travel five meters. We used a tape measure the five meters. Because the tape measure wasn't straight the distance may have been different at the different sites. And because the stopwatch was stopped after the twig had passed five meters then the timing may not have been accurate. The velocity would have been more accurate if we would have used a flow meter When drawing my cross- sections not all the squares were complete so I had to put two half squares together and count them as one. This too is not a reliable method for measuring the cross-sectional area. Over all my results were quite unreliable and not very accurate. Janell James Geography Coursework ...read more.

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