• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The 1993 Mississippi Flood Report.

Extracts from this document...


The 1993 Mississippi Flood Report History The Mississippi river is 3800km in length and flows through ten states. It receives over 100 major tributaries, including the Missouri which joins at St Louis. Its drainage basin covers one-third of the USA and a small part of Canada. Frequent flooding by the Mississippi has created a wide flood plain. The flood plain is 200km wide at its widest point, and consists of fertile silt deposited by the river at times of flood. Even before the area was settled by Europeans, the river flowed above the level of its flood plain and between natural levees. Nineteenth-century Americans considered the Mississippi to untameable and a major flood in 1927 caused 217 deaths. Since then over 300 dams and storage reservoirs have been built, the natural levees have been heightened and strengthened to protect major urban areas. The levee at St Louis is 18km long and 16metres high. ...read more.


An area larger than the size of the British Isles was affected by the flooding. The Mississippi proved that it had nit been tamed, as it claimed 43 lives and caused billions of pounds worth of damage. # (Above) The Mississippi and Missouri Rivers as they Approach their confluence Above St Louis. The purple shows the flooded area. (Above right) the Mississippi flood before the flood. (Right) the Mississippi during the flood. Effects of the Flood The effects of the flood did not end when the river level began to fall. It took several months for the water to drain off the land. Although the land was covered in fertile silt, the ground was to wet for planting crops. The contents of houses and factories, even if not the buildings themselves, were ruined. Clearing up operations took months and cost millions. ...read more.


In times of flooding it diverts excess water from the Mississippi along a 9km slipway, through 350 small reservoirs, into Lake Pontchartrain, and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. This has greatly reduced the flood risk at New Orleans and Baton Rouge. 4.Making the course straighter and shorter This method was aimed at trying to get rid of flood water from the river basin as quickly as possible. It was achieved by cutting through narrow necks of several large meanders. Between 1934 and 1945 a 530km stretch of river was shortened by almost 300km. by shortening the distance the gradient and therefore the speed of the river is increased. 5.Strenghtening the levees Levees used to consist only of soil covered by bundles of willow and were venerable to erosion by the river. Now a specially designed barge backs away from the shore laying concrete mattresses, each mattress measuring 25 metres by 8 metres. The process is repeated until the bank from the deepest point of the river to above the flood level. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Case Study: The Mississippi River Flood of 1993

    * 241 fish species inhabit the Mississippi River and its tributaries. * The Mississippi River serves as a shared border for 10 states. * The river and its tributaries supply drinking water for more than 18 million people in central U.S.

  2. Flooding on the Mississippi

    the leaves intercept rainfall and so delay run-off into the river. b) Evapotranspiration ( the loss of moisture from water surfaces and the soil and vegetation) reduces the amount of water reaching the river. c) Roots delay the throughflow of water to the river.

  1. "The 1993 Mississippi floods were caused by hard river engineering" Discuss this statement.

    However the sediment that would naturally be deposited on top of the existing mounds when the river rises now cannot be 'thrown' from the river as it never reaches the point where it can overflow. Instead, it collects along the river bed, decreasing the volume of space allowed for water in the channel, so pushing upwards the water levels.

  2. Compare the impact and responses to a major flood in an MEDC and LEDC.

    of them occurring in the first place, however aid is not large and generally only given after a major incident has occurred, not before. During the major flooding of July and August 2004, 38% of the whole country was submerged; a lot of that land being agricultural, therefore lots of crop and the countries food was destroyed.

  1. To assess whether the modified channel of the river ash is effective in reducing ...

    While doing this we made sure the stick was at a 90? angle to the measuring tape. Equipment * 30 m. measuring tape * A metre stick Limitations To make the experiment accurate we made sure the metre stick was at a 90? angle to the measuring tape while measuring.

  2. To what extent the flood alleviation scheme has had on the environment and people ...

    Bank to bank: Average depth (cm): Wetted perimeter (Land in contact with water if bankfull) (m): 4.10 Discharge (CSA x av. Velocity): Efficiency (CSA/wetter perimeter): Manmade channel (actual flow) Width (cm) left bank 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 Depth (cm)

  1. River Management Case Study on The Mississippi.

    But the use of reservoirs isn't terribly cost effective as the reservoirs face major risk of silting up. Using the Hjulstrom curve to back up this theory we can see how this will occur.

  2. Geography investigation - The River Skirfare located in the Littondale region in the Yorkshire ...

    14:00 Shows how much material is in a sample of river water. Shows directly the amount of material in the river water. Only a small sample. Of little importance. We can see that from the table above that the second hypothesis requires a great deal more data.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work