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The aim of this report is to define the geological evolution of the area around Stirling University and the Bridge of Allan.

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Background: Introduction This report is produced in conjunction with the University of Stirling Environmental Science course 36E3. The aim of this report is to define the geological evolution of the area around Stirling University and the Bridge of Allan. In order that this be fully understood and correctly researched, a look at the bigger picture of Scottish geological evolution has been necessary as well as looking at the geology of the local area in closer detail.The geographical area covered by this report is bounded by OS co-ordinates: Southwest: 278000,695000 Northeast: 283000, 699000 Figure 1.0 shows this area in detail, using a 1:50,000 Ordinance Survey Map Extract. To enable us to fully understand the geology of the area, site visits were made to three locations within the bounded area of the report. Site 1: Wolf's Hole Quarry (Fig 2.0) NGR NS 7896 9808 Site 2: Hermitage Woods (Fig 3.0 NGR NS 8120 9681 Site 3: Hermitage Woods (Fig 3.0) NGR NS 8115 9676 (Fig 1.0) (Fig 2.0) (Fig 3.0) Geological History of Area: History 'Stirling area sits astride a major boundary between two blocks, brought together between 450 and 420 million years ago. ...read more.


(Fig 8.0). From the understanding ascertained by researching geological maps, and through reading, we can say that it is part of the Garvock Group. This group is made of two sections, known as the lower Sheriffmuir, and upper, Dunblane Formations. These formations can be correlated to be the area in which Wolf's Hole Quarry is located as these formations consist of brown or grey and red fluvial sandstones. The sandstone in the quarry is a mixture of these two types of sandstone. Fig 8.0 From the sampling at Site 1, we can show that within this area large deposits of sand were deposited and were then subsequently over a period of time metamorphosed into sandstone through the presence of pressure and heat. In this Devonian age, Scotland was situated, as mentioned earlier, slightly to the south of the equator and the climate was defined as semi-arid. A large, subsiding basin was created due to the extension (north and south) of the crust. Large amounts of sediments were moved from the Caledonian mountains into this system by very large river systems, comparable in size to the Mississippi river system in the United States of America - the sedimentary rocks formed by these processes were mainly fluvial sandstones. ...read more.


This lower plane of softer rock with the occasional volcanic feature has been largely swept smooth by moving ice flows. As ice has met harder rock it has formed crag and tail features in an east west alignment. These high points in the lower planes are where large settlements can be found and through history have been used for such a purpose with heraldic seats being taken in castles built on these crag and tail features, most notably Edinburgh and Stirling Castles. Conclusions The area bounded by this report contains some of the most diverse and complicated geology to be found within Scotland. It is possible from research carried out through field studies and also reading to look at the area from its conception and subsequent changes over 400 million years. It is not easy to visual Scotland in today's climate ever being a tropical land south of the equator but by piecing together historical and geological data this is possible. The rock formations in and around Stirling, show evidence that they were formed during periods of high volcanic activity and that plate movements were also extremely active. The stark contrast in hard and soft rock North and South of the Ochil fault line allow for such a dramatic change in the topography and geology of the area. ...read more.

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