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The Demographic Transition Model or Population Cycle

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Introduction

The Demographic Transition Model or Population Cycle Stage 1 - High birth rate and high death rate When birth rate and death rate are birth high (about 35 per 1000) then the natural increase is very low, giving only a small population growth or no change at all. Examples of populations at Stage 1 are rare today because of the spread of modern medicines and new farming techniques. Perhaps only a few remote tribes in the Amazon forest, which have little contact with the outside world, are still in Stage 1. The UK was at Stage 1 before the Industrial Revolution up to about 1750. Reasons for a high death rate include: 1. Diseases such as Cholera and Bubonic Plague. 2. Famine and Malnutrition. 3. Lack of clean water and sewerage facilities. 4. Lack of medical care and drugs. Stage 2 - The birth rate remains high and the death rate begins to fall At the start of stage 2 both birth rate and death rate remains high. ...read more.

Middle

3. An improvement in the quality and the quantity of food supplies. The UK passed through stage 2 during the industrial revolution between 1750 and 1900. At this time new medicines were being discovered and people learned about the importance of hygiene and cleanliness. In the UK, water mains and sewerage systems began to be built in many of the growing towns and cities. The same developments are taking place in many developing countries today, although some of the poorest such as Bangladesh and Nigeria are still in the early stage 2 of the population cycle. Stage 3 - The birth rate starts to fall The death rate continues to fall but more slowly, to about 15 per 1000, but the most important change is in the birth rate. The birth rate also starts to fall, to about 20 per 1000 population. This means there is still high natural increase but the population growth begins to slow down. ...read more.

Conclusion

Stage 4 - Birth and Death rates are both low In stage 4 the death rate and the birth rate are both low, although both may fluctuate slightly from year to year. This gives a very low natural increase or a steady population. Many MEDCs, such as countries of Europe, the USA and Japan, are at stage 4 today. If all the countries in the world were at stage 4 then zero population growth would be much closer. Many people hope that world zero population growth is achieved before too long. They are worried about the speed at which the Earth's resources are being used up, about levels of pollution and about how the ever-growing population will be fed, clothed and housed. Types of Migration Permanent Temporary International Internal (Between Countries) (Within a country) VOLUNTARY, e.g. FORCED (refugees) SEASONAL DAILY For work, " brain e.g. slave trade e.g. tourism shops work, " brain drain", and Afghans fruit - picking escape poverty. and university students Urban to rural Rural to urban e.g. retirement and e.g. searching for counter urbanization employment ...read more.

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