• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Demographic Transition Model or Population Cycle

Extracts from this document...


The Demographic Transition Model or Population Cycle Stage 1 - High birth rate and high death rate When birth rate and death rate are birth high (about 35 per 1000) then the natural increase is very low, giving only a small population growth or no change at all. Examples of populations at Stage 1 are rare today because of the spread of modern medicines and new farming techniques. Perhaps only a few remote tribes in the Amazon forest, which have little contact with the outside world, are still in Stage 1. The UK was at Stage 1 before the Industrial Revolution up to about 1750. Reasons for a high death rate include: 1. Diseases such as Cholera and Bubonic Plague. 2. Famine and Malnutrition. 3. Lack of clean water and sewerage facilities. 4. Lack of medical care and drugs. Stage 2 - The birth rate remains high and the death rate begins to fall At the start of stage 2 both birth rate and death rate remains high. ...read more.


3. An improvement in the quality and the quantity of food supplies. The UK passed through stage 2 during the industrial revolution between 1750 and 1900. At this time new medicines were being discovered and people learned about the importance of hygiene and cleanliness. In the UK, water mains and sewerage systems began to be built in many of the growing towns and cities. The same developments are taking place in many developing countries today, although some of the poorest such as Bangladesh and Nigeria are still in the early stage 2 of the population cycle. Stage 3 - The birth rate starts to fall The death rate continues to fall but more slowly, to about 15 per 1000, but the most important change is in the birth rate. The birth rate also starts to fall, to about 20 per 1000 population. This means there is still high natural increase but the population growth begins to slow down. ...read more.


Stage 4 - Birth and Death rates are both low In stage 4 the death rate and the birth rate are both low, although both may fluctuate slightly from year to year. This gives a very low natural increase or a steady population. Many MEDCs, such as countries of Europe, the USA and Japan, are at stage 4 today. If all the countries in the world were at stage 4 then zero population growth would be much closer. Many people hope that world zero population growth is achieved before too long. They are worried about the speed at which the Earth's resources are being used up, about levels of pollution and about how the ever-growing population will be fed, clothed and housed. Types of Migration Permanent Temporary International Internal (Between Countries) (Within a country) VOLUNTARY, e.g. FORCED (refugees) SEASONAL DAILY For work, " brain e.g. slave trade e.g. tourism shops work, " brain drain", and Afghans fruit - picking escape poverty. and university students Urban to rural Rural to urban e.g. retirement and e.g. searching for counter urbanization employment ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Population & Settlement section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Population & Settlement essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Demographic Transition Model.

    3 star(s)

    misrepresentation of some countries' population and the reasons for the given population changes. The model being a prediction of things to come failed in the time that the predicted period came to being. Stage two of the model suggested that the decrease in death rate was due to industrialisation whereas it was due to insanitary conditions which resulted from urbanisation.

  2. Free essay

    The Demographic Transition Model

    I want to explain those stages now a little bit further: Stage 1: The death rates fluctuated up until about 1740. In years of plenty the death rate fell, rising again in periods of scarcity, missing hygiene and cheap gin drinking.

  1. Urbanisation In LEDCs

    The migrants are usually the young men who go to work in the new heavy construction industries and young women finding jobs in service industries. The conditions may not be perfect but are usually better than in rural areas. People are migrating because there has been a decrease in the amount of available farmland.

  2. Geography: Causes of Famine

    WAR CASE STUDY? Analysis of Famine - Africa Having examined different causes of famine, and how these causes take out their effect on famine it is now necessary to look in to at further depth a continent wide famine, which has been caused due to several of the reasons already given.

  1. Why was Malthus wrong about Japan?

    In reality Japan was much more akin to England in terms of its demography than China. Malthus was wrong in this case as well. He presumed Japan to be dissimilar to European countries and because of its locality in relation to China, to be much more alike it neighbouring country.

  2. Geography revision - flooding - Urbanisation - Population problems

    Solutions: Sea walls of resistant rock to reduce cliff erosion, rock grones to trap beach material, metal revetment posts to reduce wave energy or letting nature take its course, are all solutions being considered. Hydrological Cycle - The continuous cycle of water between the oceans.

  1. How relevant is the Demographic Transition Model?

    If not for this policy, it would probably still be in the second stage as it does not have an infrastructure like most of the MEDCs and is otherwise probably not capable of progressing so fat into the latter stages.

  2. Changes in Demographic Characteristics of Indonesia

    there also has to be enough jobs for them and if not, there will be more unemployment in the country. In economics, the dependency ratio is an age-population ratio of those not in the labor force (dependent part)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work