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The effects of air pollution on children

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Introduction

The effects of air pollution on children Air pollution causes many effects on the health of adults and childrens. According to the report by T. Kleinman over the past several years, the incidence of a number of diseases has increased such as asthma, bronchitis and respiratory infections due to air pollution. Study reveals that children take in more air per unit body weight at a given level of exertion than do adults. E.g. When children play soccer games they take in 20% to 50% than an adult would in comparable activity. Air pollution has greater impact on the health of children and adults Ozone O3 This is very important pollutant, which cause enormous damage to human health. Ozone O3 is a molecule built of three atoms of oxygen linked together in a very energetic combination. When ozone comes into contact with surface it rapidly releases this extra force in the form of chemical energy. ...read more.

Middle

CO firmly attaches to haemoglobin and stays in the blood for relatively long time. Generally, of the health effects directly associated with CO2 are most, likely due to decreases in oxygen delivery to vital organs such as the heart and brain. The air quality standards for CO based on the results of epidemiological and laboratory findings. Ambient levels of CO should not exceed 9ppm, when averaged over 8-hour intervals and should not exceed 20ppm in any one-hour period. (The USA EPA has a slightly higher t-hour standard of 35ppm). If look at the epidemiological studies which revels that significant association between several health effects and Co, although as mentioned earlier it is difficult to completely isolate Co, effects from those of other air pollutants. Co also causes effects to pregnant women who were exposed to high levels of ambient Co (5 PP m to 6PPm) were increased risk of having low birth- weight babies. Air borne particles Air particles mean nitrate, sulphates carbon and acid aerosols, which are complex pollutants. ...read more.

Conclusion

Gaseous pollutants There are three pollutants which cause irritation on the lining of the lungs and also increase respiratory stress, to animals. Birds are even more suspectible to gaseous pollutant injury than mammals due to their higher respiratory rates. Non-acidic particulates Includes lead, arsenic and cadmium are emitted by smelters, fluoride is emitted in both gaseous and particulate form from aluminium reduction plants and coal fired power plants and dioxins, furans and mercury are emitted by resource recovery facilitates. Metals have been reported to affect the circulatory , respiratory, gastro-intestinal and central nervous system of animal. (JR Newton 1985) Often organs such as the kidney, liver and bran are target. An early study of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) near zinc smelter in Pennsylvania reported elevated renal concentrations of cadmium and zinc in the animals examined, with the highest concentrations reported in those deer collected closest to the facility (L Sileo 1985) The individual with the highest renal concentration also had joint lesions similar to those found in zinc poisoned horses from the same area. ...read more.

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