• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The historical rural development of China.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

For many developing countries that are not endowed with abundant natural resources like oil, coal, metal, and minerals - agriculture is their means of support. Sustainable agriculture is essential for future development in industry and urbanization. In order for agricultural growth to happen, one must possess the following resources: land, labor, capital and other essential inputs, such as fertilizers. Before embarking on full-scale agricultural production, one must have total control of the most important agricultural input -- the water supply; which is most often controlled via irrigation canals. Furthermore, a solid and uncorrupt political environment is crucial before such projects can even take place. China is one such developing country; with roughly 900 million of its inhabitant settled in rural areas, is very much concerned with its rural development and the need to sustain a Country with over 1 billion people. The context in which we will concentrate is the historical rural development of China. In contrast with Japan, China has a very complex history of rural development and economic growth. ...read more.

Middle

Contrasted with China, under the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government was engaged in constructing a productive economy. During the Meiji Restoration, the economic reforms implemented we so successful that the production of food began to grow faster than the population. Japan was able to enjoy such economic success party because trade with Western nations occurred much later than other nations. For example, trading activity between Western countries and China commenced earlier than Japan and was for this reason unable to enjoy the economic success that Japan was familiar with. After the first Opium War and the first unequal treaty several trading ports opened, westerners were granted special concessions within China's borders - extraterritorial rights, exemption from Chinese laws, etc. With the pervasive influence of Western aggressions, the governance of the Qing Dynasty was undermined. Throughout this period of imperialism, the rural decline in China was exacerbated. Widespread famine and illness was all too common. At the hands of Western brutality, China's landscape was no longer admired for its beauty but was now characterized by "deserted villages where packs of wild dogs tore at rotting corpses." ...read more.

Conclusion

From the 1950's until the 1980's, China adopted and executed radical reforms to stimulate rural agricultural production. The People's Republic of China instituted many policies to change the Country's preconceived notions of the peasant class - it sought to identify the peasantry as the lifeblood of communist China. Following the establishment of the new nation, communist policies granted peasants economic sovereignty in the form of land. Furthermore, to uphold their favored status in society and to preserve revolutionary mantras, Mao considered agricultural collectivization as the most efficient way to promote growth in the rural sector. Collectivization was seen as the idea means of organization: it would combine scarce resources, provide employment to rural surplus laborers and transfer revolutionary fervor into dedication towards expanding agricultural output. Mao's idea of rural collectives also allowed the communists to successfully recruit labor to construct small-scale public projects. Through China's looking glass, collectivization was considered a success. It provided an effective means to mobilize labor and to construct projects that would eventually provide positive long-run effects for China's agriculture sector. In addition, collectivization efficiently accumulated capital, supplied farmers with new technology, and modern farming techniques. Lastly, collectivization provided a means for rural villagers to cooperate and forge close relationships. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Production - Location & Change section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Production - Location & Change essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Scott Report and the Making of the Modern Countryside - 'How penetrating was ...

    5 star(s)

    One merely has to assume the trends outlined are true. The Scott Report then talks about the 'drift from the land' including push and pull factors. The 'drift from the land' was most evident in the years 1850-1950. The agricultural depression stated previously had a major effect on the countryside.

  2. The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its ...

    * Develop nutrition policies * To collaborate with governments to improve food security. * To improve nutritional aspects of health services. University of the West Indies (UWI) * Provide degree training in agriculture and related fields * Conduct agricultural research for improving farming methods and pest and disease control.

  1. Arthur Lewis's dual-sector model of development.

    Gerschenkron doesn't reject Rostow; however, he modifies him. Gerschonkron argues that there are varying degrees of backwardness at the traditional stage and different countries start their industrialization processes at different levels.

  2. "Can the theories that Alfred D. Chandler developed in his book 'Scale and Scope: ...

    Scale and Scope - The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. USA: Harvard University Press (Note: Whenever there are references in the text that mention only pages but not the source, they refer to this book) Foster M.J. (2000). Weekly Column. Retrieved on Dec. 18, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.gov.state.la.us/ Mehtabdin, R.K.

  1. Industrial Revolution.

    industries in Britain, whilst the economic ones are increasingly important in industrial location now. Physical factors Accessibility: The site of the new factor needs to be accessible, so that importing of raw materials and exporting of finished products is easy.

  2. To what extent do the sources agree that Russian Government Policy on agriculture consistently ...

    'You were not dealing with a few score thousands of aristocrats, but with millions of small men', this shows that the peasants created problems for stalin by uniting together against the policies. Source 3 supports the question as it shows how the peasants resisted agricultural reforms and it does show

  1. In what ways are banks in developing countries different from banks in financially developed ...

    Some observers even consider agricultural development banks as the 'white elephants' of development finance (IMF, 2000), that need either to be reformed or closed. The disenchantment comes from a majority of disappointing experiences. Because of state-ownership, certain economic principles do not apply, simply because the main motivation behind the operation of these banks is not driven by profit.

  2. Were the Rebecca Riots a justifiable expression of rural discontent?

    The furrow is seldom more than half turned, by which the growth of weed is encouraged...The land is thus reduced in the last stage of poverty Marl, so successfully used by the English farmer, is sparingly adopted by the Welsh. In cutting wheat they still use the common reaping hook."

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work