• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The historical rural development of China.

Extracts from this document...


For many developing countries that are not endowed with abundant natural resources like oil, coal, metal, and minerals - agriculture is their means of support. Sustainable agriculture is essential for future development in industry and urbanization. In order for agricultural growth to happen, one must possess the following resources: land, labor, capital and other essential inputs, such as fertilizers. Before embarking on full-scale agricultural production, one must have total control of the most important agricultural input -- the water supply; which is most often controlled via irrigation canals. Furthermore, a solid and uncorrupt political environment is crucial before such projects can even take place. China is one such developing country; with roughly 900 million of its inhabitant settled in rural areas, is very much concerned with its rural development and the need to sustain a Country with over 1 billion people. The context in which we will concentrate is the historical rural development of China. In contrast with Japan, China has a very complex history of rural development and economic growth. ...read more.


Contrasted with China, under the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government was engaged in constructing a productive economy. During the Meiji Restoration, the economic reforms implemented we so successful that the production of food began to grow faster than the population. Japan was able to enjoy such economic success party because trade with Western nations occurred much later than other nations. For example, trading activity between Western countries and China commenced earlier than Japan and was for this reason unable to enjoy the economic success that Japan was familiar with. After the first Opium War and the first unequal treaty several trading ports opened, westerners were granted special concessions within China's borders - extraterritorial rights, exemption from Chinese laws, etc. With the pervasive influence of Western aggressions, the governance of the Qing Dynasty was undermined. Throughout this period of imperialism, the rural decline in China was exacerbated. Widespread famine and illness was all too common. At the hands of Western brutality, China's landscape was no longer admired for its beauty but was now characterized by "deserted villages where packs of wild dogs tore at rotting corpses." ...read more.


From the 1950's until the 1980's, China adopted and executed radical reforms to stimulate rural agricultural production. The People's Republic of China instituted many policies to change the Country's preconceived notions of the peasant class - it sought to identify the peasantry as the lifeblood of communist China. Following the establishment of the new nation, communist policies granted peasants economic sovereignty in the form of land. Furthermore, to uphold their favored status in society and to preserve revolutionary mantras, Mao considered agricultural collectivization as the most efficient way to promote growth in the rural sector. Collectivization was seen as the idea means of organization: it would combine scarce resources, provide employment to rural surplus laborers and transfer revolutionary fervor into dedication towards expanding agricultural output. Mao's idea of rural collectives also allowed the communists to successfully recruit labor to construct small-scale public projects. Through China's looking glass, collectivization was considered a success. It provided an effective means to mobilize labor and to construct projects that would eventually provide positive long-run effects for China's agriculture sector. In addition, collectivization efficiently accumulated capital, supplied farmers with new technology, and modern farming techniques. Lastly, collectivization provided a means for rural villagers to cooperate and forge close relationships. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Production - Location & Change section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Production - Location & Change essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Scott Report and the Making of the Modern Countryside - 'How penetrating was ...

    5 star(s)

    One merely has to assume the trends outlined are true. The Scott Report then talks about the 'drift from the land' including push and pull factors. The 'drift from the land' was most evident in the years 1850-1950. The agricultural depression stated previously had a major effect on the countryside.

  2. Why did Mao begin the great leap forward in 1958?

    backyard steel furnaces were built in towns and villages all over China. Shortly after, these little furnaces, each one capable making only a few tonnes of steel, had turned out 11 million tonnes of steel.

  1. The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its ...

    * Develop nutrition policies * To collaborate with governments to improve food security. * To improve nutritional aspects of health services. University of the West Indies (UWI) * Provide degree training in agriculture and related fields * Conduct agricultural research for improving farming methods and pest and disease control.

  2. Case Study of Rural Rebranding by the Forestry Commission in Wales Coed-Y-Brenin Forest, Snowdonia

    They also don't just cut down random trees, specific trees, from a specific place are cut; and only a certain amount can be cut. Fieldwork I think Coed-y-Brenin is very successful in meeting the needs of the people. They have a variety of activities in one place.

  1. "Bottom up not top down!" Is this the way ahead for Aid and Investment ...

    their own industries Countries can become too dependent on aid rather than looking to establish their own economies. Two contrasting development projects in South Africa. Bottom up - The Hertzog agricultural cooperative (HACOP) Following the end of apartheid in South Africa, local communities started to take up the challenge of development.

  2. Were the Rebecca Riots a justifiable expression of rural discontent?

    The furrow is seldom more than half turned, by which the growth of weed is encouraged...The land is thus reduced in the last stage of poverty Marl, so successfully used by the English farmer, is sparingly adopted by the Welsh. In cutting wheat they still use the common reaping hook."

  1. Everyone's Gasoline Problem. We are all familiar with fluctuating prices of gasoline at the ...

    Web Based Question 20-17. The price of gold---today , yesterday and throughout the year. Visit www.goldprices.com to find the very latest price of gold. Compare that price to the price at the beginning of the day. What was the highest price during the last 12 months?

  2. Is Biological Pest Control Better Than Chemical Control?

    New pesticides have to be used once pests become resistant to it, which costs more money. Insecticide resistance is reaching a crisis point at this moment in time all over the world. The loss of use of the chemical pesticides means all the money gone into developing, researching and producing the product is wasted.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work