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"The Impacts of Natural Hazards include Social, Economic and environmental effects" Discuss this statement in relation to an area of Multiple hazards.

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Introduction

"The Impacts of Natural Hazards include Social, Economic and environmental effects" Discuss this statement in relation to an area of Multiple hazards Introduction A natural hazard event can be defined as a natural occurrence that can cause a potential threat and loss of life to people inhabiting a certain area. As well as causing danger to humans, natural hazards can also be crippling to the local economies. An example of this was hurricane Andrew that struck the East Coast of America in 1992, causing $26.5 billion worth of damage. Hazards are a very real threat to humans, with over 1500 active volcanoes and with 50 to 60 eruptions occurring every year. A multiple hazard region is an area where more than one natural event threatens the local population. This report will, as the title suggests focus on the three impacts of a Natural hazard, Social, Economic and environmental. The social impacts of a hazard include the displacement of a population and how many people died and were injured. The economic impacts are concerned with how the regions economy is affected in the aftermath of the event. This can include immediate cost of having to provide shelter to the homeless to the more long term costs of rebuilding much of a city which was the case in Kobe when $20 billion worth of damage was done by the 1995 earthquake. Environmental impacts include how the regions environment is affected by the event. ...read more.

Middle

the social impacts were large including 100 dead and 500 injured. The Area was very lucky not to be struck by a Tsunami in the aftermath of this earthquake as the US geological survey issued a Tsunami warning for the western side of the country. If the Tsunami had have hit, the damage would have been far more extensive. In 1998 a Tsunami struck Papua new Guinea after an earthquake of similar strength to the one that struck Sumatra occurred. Waves of up to 10 metres high completely destroyed all coastal villages with over 2000 left dead. The main social impacts were deaths and injures along with families being split up and hypothermia occurring after 25,000 people are forced to shelter outside. On of the more long term social impacts was that the 'Breadwinner' of the family having been killed so many families were short of money and therefore food. While most of the economic impacts were the same as when the landslide struck, one of the economic impacts was the damage caused to the fledgling tourist industry. In recent years some of the population have tried to cash in on wealthy westerners wanting to view the jungle and wild animals in their natural habitat. This Earthquake has, according to the president, 'set back the tourist industry by at least 10 years'. With many of the tourists areas destroyed by the quake it is easy to see why. ...read more.

Conclusion

Sumatra's LEDC status makes social impacts worse than MEDCs, but economic impacts are also hard felt. Wherever a natural event strikes an area its economy is badly effected. Although in MEDCs a large mount of damage may be done (over $20 billion damage caused by hurricane Andrew) but an MEDCs can quickly restore the economy back to as it was due to government being allocated money by central government for help with the disaster. In Sumatra the economic impacts of hazards are much worse. The central government has no money to help rejuvenate an area after a disaster, so a promising new industry such as tourism's development can b pushed back almost a decade meaning the whole of the Sumatra economy will be in decline for many years after the event. The pressure on the Sumatra economy means that ministers often turn a 'blind eye' to illegal activities such as logging because these activities bring in external revenue and employment. Although this activity was known to increase the risk of landslides, the government hoped that somehow a landslide would be averted and there would be a cash injection into the economy. Neither happened and the result was that many people are now trapped in the poverty cycle The environmental impacts of a natural disaster are also worse in an LEDC. This is because what little money that is present to restore the area back to what it was prior to the disaster is allocated to the human population with little regard for the animal population affected by the event which was in this case the 2-horn Rhino. ...read more.

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