• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14

The Nile is 6,690 km long, extending through 35 degrees of latitude as it flows from south to north.

Extracts from this document...


Introduction The Nile is 6,690 km long, extending through 35 degrees of latitude as it flows from south to north. Its basin covers approximately one-tenth of the African continent, with a catchment area of 3,007,000 km�, which is shared by eight countries: Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Zaire. Its main sources are found in Ethiopia and the countries around Lake Victoria. All along the Nile's course from its most remote source, the Cagier River in Central Africa, to the Mediterranean, people are affected to some extent by the river or its water. With a few exceptions, the water resources in the headwater areas of the system are not yet much developed. The main development has taken place in the countries situated in the semi-arid and arid zones such as Sudan and Egypt. The upstream countries, however, are now considering Nile resource development projects in their territories. The hydrological characteristics vary greatly over the basin. Rainfall in the headwater areas is abundant though seasonal. On the other hand, from about Sudan the river runs through waterless land. The river system has two main sources of water: the Ethiopian highlands and the equatorial region around Lake Victoria. More than 60% of the river flow arriving in Egypt originates in the Ethiopian highlands by way of the 'Sobat', Blue Nile, and 'Atbara' Rivers, with the bulk of this water coming down during the summer. The rest of the flow arrives from the White Nile, which has its most remote source in Burundi. This source is a tributary, which enters Lake Victoria near the border between Uganda and Tanzania. In the equatorial region, the Nile system consists of a number of great lakes, connected either by rocky sections or swamps. The White Nile, after leaving the lake area, enters Sudan through rocky gorges and then flows through a large swamp area in southern Sudan. ...read more.


The Soviet Union provided 400 technicians for the work. The Soviet Union were communist that believed nature was there to be exploited, this maybe why they were so generous. Although, Egypt will still be repaying the loans back for a very long time and so it is doubtful whether this will help Egypt to develop at all. Loss of fish from River delta Although there is a vast increase in the amount of fish in Lake Nasser there has been a significant decrease in sardines and anchovies that were important food sources caught near the mouths of the two branches of the Nile. The Mediterranean Sea can be generally considered as a "desert" in terms of fish production, due to its very low supply of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen that are required for the microscopic marine green plants to accomplish photosynthesis. As a result, marine fishing in Egypt had been important only in the immediate vicinity of the Nile outflow, especially in the months following annual flooding. Immediately after the High Dam was completed and the last Nile flood had occurred, the fishery of coastal Egypt collapsed, and has never recovered. Irrigated farmland suffers from salination: When water evaporates in these hot areas, it brings salts to the soil surface. This is called salination and it is not good for the soils or the crops. If too much salt rises to the surface, it can kill the plants and reduce yields. When the crops are irrigated the water evaporates after time leaving the salt baked into the sand. When the water is next moistened the salt dissolves and seeps deeper underground towards the roots of crops or where the roots will grow. This happens time after time and eventually in not too long a period of time the soil eventually becomes infertile due to the amounts of salt. Look at diag. Below. ...read more.


The main problem is finance, such large projects in LEDC's do not usually turn out for the best. One solution, how plausible this may be I am unsure but by continuing with water engineering, providing there is funding, (most of which will be generated by tourism) more dams could be placed further up the River or separate ones for the Blue and White Nile's digging deep reservoirs before them. Then they could hold back water allowing Lake Nasser to be drained and dredged, gathering all the silt that is possible. This would cause an almighty halt in tourism due to the inability to use Lake Nasser, and surrounding hotels would have few customers other than those perhaps working onsite. Then SLOWLY water can be let through from the Blue and White Niles allowing lake Nasser to be refilled and used as it was before but with a greater capacity and more depth do a lesser percentage of the water will evaporate. While there is little water running through the Nile as much the weed that is possible to be dug up can be done so by heavy machinery. Once all the work is done there is still the matter of getting things back to normal, such as replacing fish electricity from the Aswan Dam would have to be halted meaning electricity would have to come in from elsewhere, probably at a great expense. These developments should solve a great number of problems; the snails could be cleared so the area would have less disease, and the silt that has built up can be used. To stop these silt and snail problems from arising again a large removable mesh could be installed in front of the dam that can be raised out of the water with the silt and snails stuck to it: Although this may, or may not overcome some major problems it is clear more if its own would arise, like the strength needed in the mesh, and above all the cost, it is unlikely the Soviet Union will fund this project. Ben Raffles Page 1 18/12/2007 Page 1 of 14 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Case Study on The Three Gorges Dam in China

    flooding although this is theory is not backed by any available figures. The regulation of water east of the three gorges dam will help prevent water shortages further east on the Yangtze in cities such as Wuhan, Nanjing and Shanghi.

  2. I am going to study the characteristics of rivers and how they change as ...

    This graph shows the cross-sectional area of each stream order. Stream order 2 has the lowest cross-sectional area, stream order 3 has a higher cross-sectional area and stream order 4 has the highest cross-sectional area. The graph above gives the channel width for each of the stream orders.

  1. To what extent are fluvio-glacial deposits and landforms distinctive?

    The Glacial grooves in the Kelley's Island State Park are the largest and most easily accessible remains of glacial striations in the world and are produced from the debris in the basal layers of the glacier gouging into the bedrock, creating straight parallel grooves due to abrasion.

  2. Three Gorges Dam

    The reservoir water can also be used to irrigate farmland so that the farmers can produce enough crops to feed their families and to sell so they can make a profit. Views of people against the dam? There are also many people that are against the building of the 3

  1. This project will study about the way the river Conwy in north Wales changes ...

    The result can be seen in page . The reason for this it might be a human error .the river decrease from 0.66 to 0.57 from site 1 to site 3. Angle/gradient: I have found that angle was decreasing when the river travels down stream. It is decreasing from 2.6 degrees to .75 degree because the river travelling down from the mountain.

  2. Edexcel Geography B Unit 3 Coursework

    This result is expected as the average depth is proportional to the hydraulic radius (HR=A/WP). Table 3.11 Hyp. Analysis Explanation 1 There is a jump in velocity of 0.075 m/s to 0.175 between sites 4 and 5 relative to the river course.

  1. Geography Coursework How Does Farming Change Between Bredon Hill and Birlingham? ...

    Introduction My aim is to find out why farming changes between Bredon Hill and Birlingham. The order of my workings is: * Identify my aim's * Choose my hypothesis or a key question I want to test * Do some research into the area + topic + write up my

  2. Compare the impact and responses to a major flood in an MEDC and LEDC.

    Being a LEDC it is extremely hard for any river management to take place as there is very little money and few resources available. They rely heavily on foreign aid to provide them with funds to develop projects which can reduce the risks of floods and the likeliness of them

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work