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The Nile is 6,690 km long, extending through 35 degrees of latitude as it flows from south to north.

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Introduction The Nile is 6,690 km long, extending through 35 degrees of latitude as it flows from south to north. Its basin covers approximately one-tenth of the African continent, with a catchment area of 3,007,000 km�, which is shared by eight countries: Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Zaire. Its main sources are found in Ethiopia and the countries around Lake Victoria. All along the Nile's course from its most remote source, the Cagier River in Central Africa, to the Mediterranean, people are affected to some extent by the river or its water. With a few exceptions, the water resources in the headwater areas of the system are not yet much developed. The main development has taken place in the countries situated in the semi-arid and arid zones such as Sudan and Egypt. The upstream countries, however, are now considering Nile resource development projects in their territories. The hydrological characteristics vary greatly over the basin. Rainfall in the headwater areas is abundant though seasonal. On the other hand, from about Sudan the river runs through waterless land. The river system has two main sources of water: the Ethiopian highlands and the equatorial region around Lake Victoria. More than 60% of the river flow arriving in Egypt originates in the Ethiopian highlands by way of the 'Sobat', Blue Nile, and 'Atbara' Rivers, with the bulk of this water coming down during the summer. The rest of the flow arrives from the White Nile, which has its most remote source in Burundi. This source is a tributary, which enters Lake Victoria near the border between Uganda and Tanzania. In the equatorial region, the Nile system consists of a number of great lakes, connected either by rocky sections or swamps. The White Nile, after leaving the lake area, enters Sudan through rocky gorges and then flows through a large swamp area in southern Sudan. ...read more.


The Soviet Union provided 400 technicians for the work. The Soviet Union were communist that believed nature was there to be exploited, this maybe why they were so generous. Although, Egypt will still be repaying the loans back for a very long time and so it is doubtful whether this will help Egypt to develop at all. Loss of fish from River delta Although there is a vast increase in the amount of fish in Lake Nasser there has been a significant decrease in sardines and anchovies that were important food sources caught near the mouths of the two branches of the Nile. The Mediterranean Sea can be generally considered as a "desert" in terms of fish production, due to its very low supply of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen that are required for the microscopic marine green plants to accomplish photosynthesis. As a result, marine fishing in Egypt had been important only in the immediate vicinity of the Nile outflow, especially in the months following annual flooding. Immediately after the High Dam was completed and the last Nile flood had occurred, the fishery of coastal Egypt collapsed, and has never recovered. Irrigated farmland suffers from salination: When water evaporates in these hot areas, it brings salts to the soil surface. This is called salination and it is not good for the soils or the crops. If too much salt rises to the surface, it can kill the plants and reduce yields. When the crops are irrigated the water evaporates after time leaving the salt baked into the sand. When the water is next moistened the salt dissolves and seeps deeper underground towards the roots of crops or where the roots will grow. This happens time after time and eventually in not too long a period of time the soil eventually becomes infertile due to the amounts of salt. Look at diag. Below. ...read more.


The main problem is finance, such large projects in LEDC's do not usually turn out for the best. One solution, how plausible this may be I am unsure but by continuing with water engineering, providing there is funding, (most of which will be generated by tourism) more dams could be placed further up the River or separate ones for the Blue and White Nile's digging deep reservoirs before them. Then they could hold back water allowing Lake Nasser to be drained and dredged, gathering all the silt that is possible. This would cause an almighty halt in tourism due to the inability to use Lake Nasser, and surrounding hotels would have few customers other than those perhaps working onsite. Then SLOWLY water can be let through from the Blue and White Niles allowing lake Nasser to be refilled and used as it was before but with a greater capacity and more depth do a lesser percentage of the water will evaporate. While there is little water running through the Nile as much the weed that is possible to be dug up can be done so by heavy machinery. Once all the work is done there is still the matter of getting things back to normal, such as replacing fish electricity from the Aswan Dam would have to be halted meaning electricity would have to come in from elsewhere, probably at a great expense. These developments should solve a great number of problems; the snails could be cleared so the area would have less disease, and the silt that has built up can be used. To stop these silt and snail problems from arising again a large removable mesh could be installed in front of the dam that can be raised out of the water with the silt and snails stuck to it: Although this may, or may not overcome some major problems it is clear more if its own would arise, like the strength needed in the mesh, and above all the cost, it is unlikely the Soviet Union will fund this project. Ben Raffles Page 1 18/12/2007 Page 1 of 14 ...read more.

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