• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The number of fatalities that result from volcanic and seismic natural hazards is related to the level of development in the country in which they occur. Discuss.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The number of fatalities that result from volcanic and seismic natural hazards is related to the level of development in the country in which they occur. Discuss. A natural hazard is an event, linked to the physical environment, which is considered to have a negative effect on humans. The event is also seen to be unpreventable by humans. However, an event such as a volcanic eruption that has no effect on human beings is considered a natural phenomenon rather than a natural hazard. It is the presence of humans, in an area that such an event occurs, that allows it to be termed a hazard. Although humans cannot prevent these occurrences, they have a role to play in the event's extremity as a natural hazard. For example, volcanic eruptions have been present throughout history, but it is not until settlements are built on the rich soils they form that they become a hazard. This essay I will evaluate the extent to which the level of development in a country affects the number of fatalities caused by volcanic and seismic natural hazards. A volcanic natural hazard is a volcanic eruption. Volcanoes are formed at convergent and divergent plate boundaries and also at hot spots. At convergent plate boundaries eruptions tend to be from a vent, as oceanic crust is forced beneath another plate, the extremities of heat and pressure leads to the partial melting of the crust which is being submerged. ...read more.

Middle

Sicily has a population of 5,050,486, 25% of this population lives on Etna's slopes. In 2002-3 major eruptions created a huge ash plume which deposited material 600km away in Libya. The eastern flanks of the volcano shifted 2m damaging housing. In 2006-7 major lava fountaining occurred, with ash emissions. In May 2008 earthquakes accompanied the opening of a fissure and the eruption of lava flows that travelled 6km. Due to Etna's regular eruptions throughout history the people who inhabit its slopes are experienced in managing the eruptions, there if often little government intervention unless a densely populated area is threatened for example Zafferana by the lava flow in 1992. In 2002 dams of soil and rock were installed to protect the tourist centre. The Italian Army's earthmoving equipment was used to block and divert lava flows. The government immediately made allowances for $8m in financial assistance and tax breaks for villagers. Due to it's frequent eruptions, Etna has been monitored more closely than Chaiten. It has been monitored by the INGV for 20 years by remote sensors. Data is continuously recorded and observations made to evaluate volcanic activity levels and issue warnings. Many other measurements are also taken so that warning may be given as early as possible. In 2002 the eruption destroyed the tourist station at Piano Provenzana and part of another. ...read more.

Conclusion

Secondary threats emerged from the barrier dams, the soldiers solved this by using explosives to divert the water into earthquake damaged towns. The disaster was too larger for the Chinese government to deal with alone, The Chinese government allocated 95 billion yuan in aid relief and foreign and domestic donations yielded 55 billion yuan. Volcanic natural hazards have in the past caused a high fatality rate, but in recent times in both MEDCs and LEDCs it has generally been low, due to advancement in prediction techniques and equipment and improved evacuation plans being made available to both. In relation to seismic natural hazards Iran and China both had a high death toll though the MEDC (China) had a higher death toll, the earthquake had a greater magnitude and the area in which it occurred was more densely populated. That the buildings in China had not been made earthquake resistant shows that a country being an MEDC does not mean that all areas will benefit. That the earthquake was not predicted can be attributed to the low reliability of prediction methods, there is a chance that if it had been predicted appropriate areas would have been evacuated and the number of fatalities would have significantly decreased. To conclude, these case studies show little relationship between the number of fatalities caused by seismic and volcanic natural hazards and the level of development in a country. Sources of information: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/volcano-profile/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotspot_(geology) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake#Naturally_occurring_earthquakes http://www.extremescience.com/calderas.htm http://geology.com/volcanoes/etna/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/int/geog/envhaz/volcanoes/prediction/index.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Etna#Recent_Eruptions http://geology.com/volcanoes/chaiten/ Text book Google images http://www.nextearthquake.com/ http://geobytesgcse.blogspot.com/2007/01/case-study-of-earthquake-in-ledc-bam.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2003_Bam_earthquake http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2003/dec/27/iran.naturaldisasters4 http://www.edu4hazards.org/earthquake/earthquake.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/asia_pacific/2008/china_quake/default.stm ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

A very well evidenced essay, though at times lacking focus on the question. The case studies used were relevant and would benefit from further linkage back to the question posed. Some small tweaks would make this an excellent answer.
4 stars

Marked by teacher Molly Reynolds 07/08/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss the degree to which the theory of plate tectonics is supported by seismic ...

    5 star(s)

    They are often found around spreading ridges where tension is pulling the crust apart. Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans, therefore most volcanic activity is submarine, causing seafloor spreading. Examples of this form of volcano are mid-ocean ridges and where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed, for example, Iceland.

  2. The Global Distribution of Geophysical Hazards

    Istanbul, Turkey and Kathmandu, Nepal are the two most earthquake-prone cities in the world. The Western American Coast and Japan are practically earthquake zones in their own right (both receive up to 6 or 7 significant (greater then magnitude 5)

  1. Describe and explain the global distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes.

    the mantle, located beneath the present-day position of the Island of Hawaii. Heat from this hotspot produced a never-ending source of magma by partly melting the overriding Pacific Plate. The magma, which is lighter than the surrounding solid rock, then rises through the mantle and crust to spew onto the seafloor.

  2. How Can Natural Disasters Be Avoided, or

    as they allow sufficient time to carry out necessary preparations to minimise damage to property and loss of human life. They also permit gas networks, transport systems and nuclear power stations to shut down prior to the occurrence of earthquakes and tsunamis, thereby containing gas leaks, the risk of fire, derailments and the release of nuclear energy.

  1. Los Angeles: An Area of Multiple Hazards.

    The growth in population is putting increasing pressure on the limited water supplies. A careless spark from a cigarette or match, or an electrical storm can start a brush fire during the late summer when the vegetation is very dry.

  2. To what extent is the impact of an earthquake related to its strength. (30) ...

    If the earthquakes foci are surrounded by soft sediment, there may be a greater amount of destruction. Soft sediment will amplify seismic waves this is because seismic waves travel faster through hard rock and soft soil as the amplitude of the wave needs to increase to be able to carry the same amount of energy, therefore, creating stronger shaking.

  1. Earthquakes: Why do some places suffer more than others?

    inability to cope with the aftermath of an earthquake, will suffer greater loss of life, homelessness and loss of livelihood than a respective MEDC. In recent years, some of the greatest earthquake disasters have occurred in LEDCs, including the India quake of 1993, where 10,000 were killed, and the Afghanistan quake of 1998 were over 6,000 were killed.

  2. The Japanes Tsunami Disaster.

    Economic effects The tsunami caused a large negative impact on the economy of Japan but lesser effect on world trade and financial markets. Japan has lost considerable physical damage estimated to be from $195 billion to as much as $305 billion.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work