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The purpose of this study is to measure and explain the coastal processes occurring at Walton-on-the-Naze.

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The purpose of this study is to measure and explain the coastal processes occurring at Walton-on-the-Naze. We have chosen this particular area because it has a good rate of coastal retreat. The evidence for this is that there is plenty of bare soil which suggests that there has not been enough time for the vegetation to grow back. This means that the erosion must happen every few months. I have included explanations of the ways that this has been combated: 1. Vegetation 2. Rip Wrap 3. Drainage 4. Cliff Grading 5. Groynes 6. Sea Wall 7. Breakwaters These are the technical terms used in the explanations of the sea defences: Erosion: this is when rocks are worn away by the sea. Can end up forming new land structures. Weathering: things can be weathered in three different ways, Physical Weathering, Biological Weathering and Chemical Weathering. Mass Movement: when material moves down a slope affected by the pull of gravity. Transportation: this is when material is transported by rivers or seas. My aim in this investigation is to investigate the different factors affecting the rate of retreat of the Walton-on-the-Naze coastline. This will include clear diagrams and graphs of the information. My aims are: * To investigate and explain the rate of retreat; * To investigate how the character of the waves and sea affects the rate of retreat; * To investigate how transportation affects the rate of retreat; * To investigate how the nature of the beach affects the rate of retreat; * To investigate the nature and effectiveness of coastal defences. The objectives are: 1. To investigate how the nature of the cliffs affects the rate of retreat; 2. To investigate how the character of the waves/sea affects the rate of retreat; 3. To investigate how transportation affects the rate of retreat; 4. To investigate how the nature of the beach affects the rate of retreat; 5. ...read more.


60 x v water depth � wave frequency I calculated the wave energy using the equation like this: Wave energy = 740 x H� x wave length Wave type was decided with the following information: Generally, Constructive wave frequency is less than 10 per minute, Destructive wave frequency is greater than 13 per minute. But on the day we made the observations the waves were of low energy and therefore were deemed to not be destructive but constructive in nature. Data Presentation The data and working for objective one made on our trip is shown in a table below. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Wave Frequency 14 15 16 16 15 16 12 12 14 19 Wave Crest 0.45 0.40 0.40 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.40 0.47 0.38 0.37 Wave Trough 0.25 0.23 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.26 0.25 Wave Height 0.20 0.17 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.17 0.25 0.12 0.12 Water Depth 0.35 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.35 0.32 0.31 Wave Length 7.85 7.01 6.57 6.57 7.12 6.67 8.76 9.16 7.57 7.39 Wave Energy 232.36 149.91 214.4 235.01 278.71 261.10 187.34 423.65 375.68 341.78 Wave Type CON CON CON CON CON CON CON CON CON CON Fig. 2.1 On the next pages I have constructed graphs to show the data collected in the table above (Fig.2.1.) Fig 2.2. Fig 2.3. Fig.2.4. Fig2.5. Fig 2.6. Fig 2.7. Analysis Fig. 2.1 shows the data collected on our trip to Walton On The Naze. It includes height measurements for Wave Crest, Wave Trough, Wave Height, Water Depth and Wave Length, Kilo-joule measurements for Wave Energy. Also frequency measurements for Wave Frequency in a one-minute time period. Fig. 2.2 is a graph showing the data in the table for Wave Frequency. Fig. 2.3 is a graph showing the data in the table for Wave Crest. Fig. 2.4 is a graph showing the data in the table for Wave Trough. ...read more.


Drainage Drainage has been installed within the cliff slope to absorb any loose water in the cliff. These are made out of terracotta because this lets water through the sides of the pipe unless it is waterproofed at the bottom. This is quite successful as the area of which this has been installed the erosion has been reduced by quite a considerable margin. The pipes are old and beginning to wear with age. Cliff Grading Tendring District Council has introduced Cliff Grading. This is a process which makes the cliff gradient lesser therefore landslides are less likely to occur. This is quite successful as there is no recent evidence of landslides occurring. Groynes Groynes have been put in place to stop the occurrence of longshore drift. These are planks of wood joined together to make a barrier, which stops sand from piling up at one end of the beach. We can tell that this is successful by measuring the difference in height of the sand either side of the groyne. The condition of these groynes are poor they need replacing as planks of wood have fallen down. Sea Wall A Sea Wall has been built all the way along this stretch of the coastline. This stops the waves from getting at the cliff and stops erosion. It makes this possible by having different parts at different heights. This is successful as there is no erosion to the cliff at this point. The condition of this is good, but has cracks, which could lead to water freezing within the cracks and causing the cracks to expand. But this is a very expensive sea defence and would be difficult to replace. Breakwater One Breakwater has been assembled at the far north of all these sea defences. This is what absorbs the most energy out of the waves and is the biggest obstacle. It consists of a sturdy wooden triangle with rocks in the middle to absorb the energy. It is very successful but some of the rocks within the breakwater are eroding this would suggest that these have been here quite along time. 1 ...read more.

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