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The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its development. The role of soils and plant types.

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

TABLE OF CONTENTS ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CARIBBEAN Foreign exchange Contribution to GDP/GNP Food security Employment Environmental management CONSTRAINTS AFFECTING CARIBBEAN AGRICULTURE Climate Topography Appropriate Technology Rural Infrastructure Land Tenure and Fragmentation Credit Facilities Marketing Facilities Extension Services Praedial Larceny CLASSIFICATION OF CARIBBEAN FARMS Distinguishing Features of Farmers (According to Size) Large Farms Medium Sized Farms Small Farms Distinguishing Features of Farms (According to Produce) Crops Farm Livestock Monoculture/Mono-cropping Mixed Cropping Mixed Farming Organic Farming Agro-Forestry Integrated Farm INSTITUTIONS WHICH SUPPORT LOCAL AND REGIONAL AGRICULTURAL Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) Bodles Research Station: Jamaica Livestoc Association (J.L.A.) Jamaica Agricultural Society (J.A. S.): Scientific Research Council (SRC Sugar Industry Research Institute (SIRI) Caribbean Community Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI ) Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI) University of the West Indies (UWI) College of Agriculture, Science and Education (CASE) Inter-American Institute for Cooperation in Agriculture (IICA) Food and Agriculture Organization (F AO) Organization of American States (OAS) Inter-American Development Bank (I.D.B.) The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Caribbean Basin Initiative (C.B.I) United States Agency for International Development (USAID) European Union (EU) INTRODUCTION TO SOIL SCIENCE Functions of Soil in our Environment Soil Formation Weathering Soil formation factors Soil Profile Physical Properties of soils Soil texture Soil Structure Porosity BULK DENSITY SOIL COLOUR SOIL WATER Importance of soil Organic Matter Chemical Properties of the soil Soil pH Plant nutrients HOW THE SOIL HOLD PLANT NUTRIENTS? MANAGING SOIL FERTILITY FERTILIZERS Advantages of organic fertilizers Disadvantages of organic fertilizers Inorganic fertilizers Fertilizer grade Advantages of inorganic fertilizers Disadvantages of inorganic fertilizers Practical activity Identifying types of fertilizers Methods of applying fertilizer Importance of plant sexual reproduction in agriculture The flower Pollination Types of pollinations Self pollination Cross pollination Fertilizatio ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CARIBBEAN Foreign exchange The agriculture sector earns foreign exchange by exporting traditional and non-traditional products.

Middle

Weathering This is the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks and the mineral found in rocks. (i) Physical weathering or disintegration involves the break up rocks into smaller fragments. Physical weathering is often referred to as mechanical weathering, since it involve the action of forces. Agents of physical weathering or disintegration: * Temperature changes: - Contraction and expansion weaken the structure of the rocks. * Running water * Plants: - the roots of plants can grow between rock spaces and break up the rocks as they grow and become larger. * Humans and animals The diagram shows the result of physical weathering; a single rock disintegrated into many fragments (ii) Chemical weathering involve changing the chemical composition of rock s/ the minerals in rock via chemical reactions. Primary minerals such as quartz Sio2 are changed into changed into secondary mineral such as aluminium silicates (clay mineral). Chemical weathering is accelerated by the physical disintegration of rocks, which increases the surface of rocks, causing the rate of chemical reactions to increase. In addition, water and warmth are important factors which, influencing the rate of chemical weathering. Water is a universal solvent in which reactions can take place while, as temperature increases the rate of reactions increases. EXAMPLES OF CHEMICAL WEATHERING Carbonation and solution: Water combines with Carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid. Examples: (1) H2O + CO2 ------------ H2CO3 + CaCO3 ---------Ca(HCO3)2 (2) CaCo3 + H2CO3 ------- Ca2+ + 2HCO3- Hydration: - Water combine with rock minerals causing a chemical change in the mineral structure. Examples: anhydride (CaSO4) + Water (H2O) = Gypsum (CaSO4-H2O) 2Fe2O3 + 3H2O ------- 2Fe2O3.3H2O Hematite limonite Hydrolysis: The water molecule splits in to H+ and OH-and reacts with minerals CaSiO 3 + 2H2O -------- HSiO3 + Ca(OH)2 Calcium silicates silicic acid calcium hydroxide Oxidation: Oxygen combines with mineral elements to form oxides. Example: a rusting sign post. Soil formation factors These are environmental factors, which determines the type of soils that are formed i.e soil colour, profile depth, chemical features and biotic characteristics.

Conclusion

Plants such as some cultivars of papaya have male and female on the different plants. > In addition to reproduction, the flowers of some plants are eaten (broccoli and cauliflower), while many are used for its aesthetic value (anthurium rose and chrysanthemum). Pollination > Transfer of pollens which contains the male gamete to the stigma > Pollination is necessary for fertilization > Fertilization is necessary for the development of true fruits and viable seeds Types of pollinations Self pollination > Transfer of pollen within a flower or different flowers on the same plant > Only one plant is involve therefore genetic variation will be reduce > Plants produce tends to be more uniform in characteristics. Cross pollination > Flower are on different plants > Plants have the characteristics of both parent > Increase variations e.g. * Yield * Shape * Size * Increase resistance to disease * Colour * Taste > Important for producing new varieties of crop plants and to improve existing varieties > Crossing plants of the same species that are not closely related can produce new varieties. The offspring produce are called Hybrids. > Hybrids tend to perform better than both parents i.e. produce higher yield and are more resistant to pest and diseases. Diagram showing crosspollination Fertilization is the joining of the male and female gamete to produce an embryo. The male gamete is found in the pollen grain while the female gametes are present in the ovule. Diagram showing processes involved in seed and fruit formation. THINK ABOUT IT You may have eaten or head about seed fruits such as oranges and grades. How is possible for these fruits to be formed without seeds. Mas Joe says that the corns he harvested have 'scattered grains' i.e. does not have uniforms rows of corn seeds. He believes that this due to the fact that the worker talked a lot during the planting of the crop. Using your scientific knowledge explain to him the true reason why his corns are ' scattered grains' ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 31

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