• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

This introduction is going to be about rivers and how they shape the landscape. Rivers are an important thing to study because the study of rivers

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

RIVER STUDY This introduction is going to be about rivers and how they shape the landscape. Rivers are an important thing to study because the study of rivers can help to build up the knowledge and understanding of places for 'the location of places and environments', for 'to describe where places are' i.e. near a river, 'to identify how and why places change'. Regarding their knowledge and understanding of patterns and processes' names, the example of river erosion as a physical process that 'can cause change in places and environments'. People also need a basic understanding flooding. They need to know factors that lead to a flooding disaster such as heavy rainfall, vegetation cover, rock type, seasonal change, previous weather etc. It is important for people to know these factors so that they can predict and know in such conditions of a flood disaster about to occur and undertake measures either to help prevent the flood or prevent the disasters and damages the river may cause. Disasters that may be caused by floods include loss of bridges, loss of money, loss of farmland, loss of industry, death etc. People also need to know about rivers; their effects on landscapes, the physical features of rivers and the processes of erosion and deposition that affect them'. It is expected that people gain an understanding of environmental damage and environmental improvement and in the pollution of a river and the effects of this on 'the future quality of people's lives'. ...read more.

Middle

I expect the velocity of the river channel to increase with distance downstream. One of the factors that will influence this is gravity that will put force on the river bed and aimed down the slope causes the water to flow. On the other hand friction is the force that opposes the downstream movement of water and acts as a resistance between the water molecules and the river bed and banks. So friction will be slowing down the velocity of the river. The zone of friction will have a greater force upstream the source. This will be because of the large boulders, large angular bedload, narrow channel and the river has less water which allows a greater force of friction reducing the velocity of the river and making it inefficient. Rivers near the source are often in mountain areas and usually confined to the bottom of a narrow, steep sided v-shaped valley. The shape is as a result of the vertical erosion by the river and downward movement of the material from the valley sides due to weathering and mass movement. This material is then washed away by the river which is able to transport large amounts of rock waste especially in flood conditions. Besides being confined to a v-shaped valley a mountain stream is often seen meandering around interlocking spurs of hard rock which the river does not have the energy to erode quickly, this is because about 95% of the river energy is used to overcome friction. ...read more.

Conclusion

Increase in variables, area and velocity, will result in an increase in the discharge as well. On the other hand, if the area and velocity stay the same then the discharge will not increase or alter but stay the same as well. I expect the bedload to become smaller and rounder with distance downstream. You will find large angular bedload and large boulders upstream. As I go downstream the bedload gets smaller and more rounded as it moves in high energy conditions. Traction rolls the large angular bedload and large boulders along the river in high energy conditions. Attrition will make large angular bedload get smaller and rounder as the stones will hit other stones causing bits to come off. The second stage is Saltation which bounces these small stones (smaller bedload) along the river bed (leap-frogging motion), causing the bedload to become even smaller. Corrosion will cause stones to hit the river banks and this will cause particles to be dislodged off the river banks and a river mat be formed. As the bedload moves downstream in high energy conditions, it erodes both the river bed (vertical erosion) and banks (lateral erosion). By the time the bedload gets to the final process of the river transport, solution, it is smaller and more rounded. The load has dissolved and is now invisible load. Corrosion also causes some minerals (although tiny) to dissolve some rocks that form the river bed and banks. As a result stones will get smaller and more rounded with distance downstream. Below are diagrams showing the four different types of river transport. River Transport Processes ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Hydrology and Fluvial geomorphology. (Q&A)

    This would then affect the system as there is less water in the river and when the water is returned, it may be polluted. This pollution could be caused by leaching of pesticides and other chemicals into the river or it could be that the water from industrial cooling is

  2. Study the downstream changes of Loughton Brook.

    Since our group didn't particularly want to get wet, they tried to estimate the water width by taking the tape measure out of the water and reading it rather than try reading it underwater.

  1. Microclimates: Detailed Study.

    The middle of the two buildings will be the windiest and coldest place throughout the day. My hypothesis is that the two building shall create a passage way for the wind to go through. This passage way will make the wind stronger and the area in between the buildings will become colder and windier.

  2. I am going to study the characteristics of rivers and how they change as ...

    Therefore, the water hits the riverbanks and causes them to break and fall; this is called "Hydraulic Action". The water also deepens the channel because of the speed. Pebbles and sand will be pushed against the riverbed and riverbanks and they would erode them. This process is known as "Abrasion".

  1. River channel processes.

    - Making the channel straight in order to reduce flood risk and aid navigation RIVER BANK EROSION- as talked about before rivers erode and deposit on the bed and banks within its channel. The erosion pat of his can be a significant problem, e.g.

  2. How does the Efficiency and Cross-Sectional Area of a River Change Down Stream?

    Graph 3 shows that there is a positive correlation, showing that down stream the cross-sectional area increases. I then calculated the efficiency, which can be seen from page 9 to 10, in figures 7 and 8. By looking at fig.

  1. Case Study: The Mississippi River Flood of 1993

    Build levees or floodwalls to contain rising stream levels. 2)Build reservoirs on tributary streams to store floodwaters for later release. Steps taken to adjust to flood events include: 1. Purchasing flood insurance though the National Flood Insurance Program; 2. Seek assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

  2. This project will study about the way the river Conwy in north Wales changes ...

    as smaller, normal the more friction takes place the less efficiency stream. It may lead to flood when it gets more efficiency downstream. Power scale: The tally of stones varies from site 1 to site 3. This is because the attriction works on rocks and there is more discharge and also there is more volume of water.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work