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This introduction is going to be about rivers and how they shape the landscape. Rivers are an important thing to study because the study of rivers

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RIVER STUDY This introduction is going to be about rivers and how they shape the landscape. Rivers are an important thing to study because the study of rivers can help to build up the knowledge and understanding of places for 'the location of places and environments', for 'to describe where places are' i.e. near a river, 'to identify how and why places change'. Regarding their knowledge and understanding of patterns and processes' names, the example of river erosion as a physical process that 'can cause change in places and environments'. People also need a basic understanding flooding. They need to know factors that lead to a flooding disaster such as heavy rainfall, vegetation cover, rock type, seasonal change, previous weather etc. It is important for people to know these factors so that they can predict and know in such conditions of a flood disaster about to occur and undertake measures either to help prevent the flood or prevent the disasters and damages the river may cause. Disasters that may be caused by floods include loss of bridges, loss of money, loss of farmland, loss of industry, death etc. People also need to know about rivers; their effects on landscapes, the physical features of rivers and the processes of erosion and deposition that affect them'. It is expected that people gain an understanding of environmental damage and environmental improvement and in the pollution of a river and the effects of this on 'the future quality of people's lives'. ...read more.


I expect the velocity of the river channel to increase with distance downstream. One of the factors that will influence this is gravity that will put force on the river bed and aimed down the slope causes the water to flow. On the other hand friction is the force that opposes the downstream movement of water and acts as a resistance between the water molecules and the river bed and banks. So friction will be slowing down the velocity of the river. The zone of friction will have a greater force upstream the source. This will be because of the large boulders, large angular bedload, narrow channel and the river has less water which allows a greater force of friction reducing the velocity of the river and making it inefficient. Rivers near the source are often in mountain areas and usually confined to the bottom of a narrow, steep sided v-shaped valley. The shape is as a result of the vertical erosion by the river and downward movement of the material from the valley sides due to weathering and mass movement. This material is then washed away by the river which is able to transport large amounts of rock waste especially in flood conditions. Besides being confined to a v-shaped valley a mountain stream is often seen meandering around interlocking spurs of hard rock which the river does not have the energy to erode quickly, this is because about 95% of the river energy is used to overcome friction. ...read more.


Increase in variables, area and velocity, will result in an increase in the discharge as well. On the other hand, if the area and velocity stay the same then the discharge will not increase or alter but stay the same as well. I expect the bedload to become smaller and rounder with distance downstream. You will find large angular bedload and large boulders upstream. As I go downstream the bedload gets smaller and more rounded as it moves in high energy conditions. Traction rolls the large angular bedload and large boulders along the river in high energy conditions. Attrition will make large angular bedload get smaller and rounder as the stones will hit other stones causing bits to come off. The second stage is Saltation which bounces these small stones (smaller bedload) along the river bed (leap-frogging motion), causing the bedload to become even smaller. Corrosion will cause stones to hit the river banks and this will cause particles to be dislodged off the river banks and a river mat be formed. As the bedload moves downstream in high energy conditions, it erodes both the river bed (vertical erosion) and banks (lateral erosion). By the time the bedload gets to the final process of the river transport, solution, it is smaller and more rounded. The load has dissolved and is now invisible load. Corrosion also causes some minerals (although tiny) to dissolve some rocks that form the river bed and banks. As a result stones will get smaller and more rounded with distance downstream. Below are diagrams showing the four different types of river transport. River Transport Processes ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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