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This project will study about the way the river Conwy in north Wales changes as it flows down stream. It involves on different variables such as width, depth, velocity, and wetted perimeter, discharge etc.

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Introduction

Introduction This project will study about the way the river Conwy in north Wales changes as it flows down stream. It involves on different variables such as width, depth, velocity, and wetted perimeter, discharge etc. It flows about 60 km from LIyn Conwy to estuary at Conwy. River Conwy was formed in the ice age. Background information MIGNEINT MOOR: a) The geology is metamorphic rock b) Soil is peat c) Precipitation high d) Height 300 m plus e) Vegetation were cotton grass, rough grasses YSBYTY IFAN: a) Small upland b) Mostly welsh speakers c) Occupation is wool weaving d) Famous for sheep farming e) Embankment built 10 years ago f) Bridges causes the river to increase in velocity g) Deposition on the upstream h) Shallows and flood risks Land use mainly pastures for cattle and sheep. This follows river, road and rail. Llanrwst is main town of the valley. Tourism is important economic activity. Conwy has an important castle built in the c14 by Edward 1 RIVER THEORY We can found all these things in a river. Upper course: a) V shaped valley b) Pools and riffles c) Pot holes d) Turbulent water e) Braided channels f) Rapid flow of the water g) Very steep In this course erosion takes place Middle course: a) Waterfall rapid b) Gorges c) Wider v shaped d) Interlocking spurs e) A little bit curve in the river f) Less gradient g) Less steeper In this course erosion and transportation takes place. Lower course: a) Flood plain b) Meanders c) Bluffs d) Ox bow lake e) Terraces f) Leeves g) Delta h) Flat In this course transportation and deposition take place. Erosion is of different kinds: a) Abrasion: materials carried by the river wear away the river channel. b) Attrition: the materials smash into each other and making them rounder. c) Hydraulic power: sheer force of the flowing waters on the bed and the bank. ...read more.

Middle

We have to pick stones from different place because when we pick up a stone from a same place and stones will be similar. VELOCITY: We are using cork because if we use some heavily substance water didn't have energy to carry the heavy substance. We have to repeat it for 5 times and also we have to throw the cork in different place because we have to notice the speed in different place. we are repeating it for 5 times this is to make an average. FLOW METRE VELOCITY: We have to measure the flow metre in five different places, because to make it as an average and also make the measurement flow metre in different places. We have to do this for one minute because it is comfortable time. LIMITATIONS WIDHT: 1) Poles cannot stamp at the correct place because there are rocks in the side of the river. 2) The problem with the width, the tapes were carried out by the river. So difficult to measure the correct width. 3) The poles were falling down because of the heavy wind up the mountains. DEPTH: 1) It is difficult to measure the depth in the flowing water. 2) I cannot put the scale on the slippery rock. 3) Human error measuring the depth wrongly. VELOCITY: 1) Sometimes the cork dash against the rock and take time to reach 10 metres. 2) In some place the side of the channel have interlocking spurs, when the cork was thrown it dashes in the interlocking spurs and it will take time. WETTED PERIMETRE: 1) It is hard to make a correct measurement because there are some undercuts. 2) Human error will be made easily, by making a chain measurement on the tape. FLOWMETRE VELOCITY: 1) The flow metre sometimes does not work because the bushes will slow the fall of water. 2) If we make the flow metre more than 1/3 up it will not give a correct result. ...read more.

Conclusion

CONCLUSION The width is increasing when the river travels down stream (true) This is because it increases the amount of water joining in from the tributaries and ground water. The depth is increasing when the river travels down stream (true) This is because the water speeds up the channel to get through and when it travels downstream there will be a less gradient and steep so it will be gradually increases the depth. The cross sectional area is increasing when the river travels down stream (true) This is because the depth and width gets bigger and bigger when it travels downstream. The wetted perimeter is increasing when the river travels down stream (true) This is because the channel was increasing. The float velocity is increasing when the river travels down stream (false). I thought the river is coming from the mountain so there will be steeper and it will more faster than site 3 but unfortunately its false because the site 3 has low friction so there will be more speed than site 1. Flow metre velocity is decreasing when the river travels down stream (true) In the upper stream there will more friction but in the lower stream there is less friction because of attriction. Gradient is decreasing when the river travels down stream (true) This is because the river is coming up from the mountain so there will be change in steep Stone size is decreasing when the river travels down stream (false) This is because of poor sampling. How the stone size will be increasing? It will be eroded. Discharge is increasing when the river travels down stream (true) This is because the water level will be high and depth increases when the river travels downstream. Hydraulic radius is increasing when the river travels down stream (true) This is because it has relationship between wetted perimeter and cross sectional area measures of efficiency as smaller, normal the more friction takes place the less efficiency stream. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thanks MR WHITTLE,MR STEVE AND MISS PARKINSON TO HELP ME IN THIS PROJECT. ...read more.

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