• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Tsunami - 26/12/04 - Causes, impact, and management

Extracts from this document...


Causes Introduction On the 26th of December at 06:48 Sri Lankan time(11:48) whilst most of the population were just going to sleep after a long Christmas day, one of the worlds largest recorded earthquake struck generating a tsunami which left the Indian ocean countries with more than 162,000 people dead and $675 million(U.S)of damages. The earthquake hit countries that were already troubled with poverty and debt leaving them in need of urgent help. World wide, people responded to help overcome this horrific disaster donating $450million and the British government donated a pledge of $96million. The word 'Tsunami' is a Japanese word with the English translation, "harbor wave." Represented by two characters, the top character, "tsu," means harbor, while the bottom character, "nami," means "wave." In the past, tsunamis were sometimes referred to as "tidal waves" by the general public though they are not actually related to tides. ...read more.


The tsunami then can extend up to more than 300 metres inland destroying most of what is in its path. Impact * By the end of the day more than 150,000 people were dead or missing and millions more homeless. * Earthquake led to a sequence of 15 quakes across the region of Andaman. * Travelled as much as 3,000 miles (nearly 5,000 kilometres) * The force of the tsunami killed people and destroyed property. * A tsunami wave less than a foot (30 centimetres) in height on the surface of the sea ocean, which went unnoticed by sailors. * Rapid surging of the ocean, more like an extremely powerful river or a flood than the advance and retreat of giant waves. * The Indian Ocean tsunami caused waves as high as 50 feet (15 meters) as it reached the coast * Hit eleven countries from Africa to Thailand * $675million(U.S) ...read more.


Earthquakes occur when any of the 12 or 13 tectonic plates collide at their boundaries. The present collision is due to compression between the Indian and Burmese plates. The initial eruption happened near the location of the meeting point of the Australian, Indian and Burmese plates. Scientists have shown that this is a region of compression as the Australian plate is rotating counterclockwise into the Indian plate. This means that the region of seismic activity has become extended extending in a region in the South Eastern Indian Ocean. Tsunamis are not entirely unknown in the Indian Ocean. Once the large amount of pent-up energy in the compression zones of the plate boundaries have been released, it takes another buildup of energy for another event of similar magnitude. This is unlikely in the short-term. Early warning is only one part of disaster risk management, disaster preparedness, vulnerability reduction and post-disaster relief and reconstruction. Location * Latitude 3.316, Longitude 95.855 * Off west coast of Sumatra south of India * North east Indian ocean ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    In December's tsunami in the Indian Ocean, an estimated 250,000-300,000 people were killed or ...

    4 star(s)

    The prediction came in a letter to 'Nature' published two weeks before the earthquake happened. In the light of the preliminary data on the magnitude 8.7 quake, Professor McCloskey was reported as saying that "it looks like one of our concerns has been realized.

  2. Earthquake is a shaking of the ground caused by the sudden breaking and shifting ...

    See SEISMOGRAPH. Scientists called seismologists measure seismic ground movements in three directions: (1) up-down, (2) north-south, and (3) east-west. The scientists use a separate sensor to record each direction of movement. A seismograph produces wavy lines that reflect the size of seismic waves passing beneath it.

  1. How much are humans to blame for Australian bushfire devastation in February 2009?

    There has also been a recent heat wave to hit Australia where the temperatures soared to about 40 degrees Celsius on most days and previous temperature records were smashed. There were very dry conditions, high winds and little rain, which could all significantly add to the spread of the bushfires, making them all the more devastating.

  2. b) What are i) the prime causes of and ii) the most effective remedies for ...

    This lack of vegetation means that the soil is not bound as well as it was resulting in increased wind and water erosion. The constant pounding of the herds' hooves on the ground also has the same effect by compressing the substrate, increasing the amount of fine material and decreasing

  1. To what extent is the impact of an earthquake related to its strength. (30) ...

    Human factors can also affect the destruction caused by earthquakes. The level of development can be considered a large variable on how the country can cope with the ability to react, recover and prepare for an earthquake.

  2. The Japanes Tsunami Disaster.

    Economic effects The tsunami caused a large negative impact on the economy of Japan but lesser effect on world trade and financial markets. Japan has lost considerable physical damage estimated to be from $195 billion to as much as $305 billion.

  1. Tectonic Activity - A general introduction

    For example, Grimsvötn, Iceland, 1996. Gases – mostly water vapour (70-90%) – also poisonous gases, e.g. CO2 or SO2 – can be released before, during and after and eruption. For example, 1986, CO2 from Lake Nyos, Cameroon, killed 1700.

  2. Volcanic and seismic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that plate-tectonics theory ...

    This arrangement means that the strength of the magnetic field is not constant but varies, being weakest at the equator and strongest at the poles. Earth?s magnetic field is thought to result from the different rotation speeds of the outer core and mantle.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work