• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Tsunami - 26/12/04 - Causes, impact, and management

Extracts from this document...


Causes Introduction On the 26th of December at 06:48 Sri Lankan time(11:48) whilst most of the population were just going to sleep after a long Christmas day, one of the worlds largest recorded earthquake struck generating a tsunami which left the Indian ocean countries with more than 162,000 people dead and $675 million(U.S)of damages. The earthquake hit countries that were already troubled with poverty and debt leaving them in need of urgent help. World wide, people responded to help overcome this horrific disaster donating $450million and the British government donated a pledge of $96million. The word 'Tsunami' is a Japanese word with the English translation, "harbor wave." Represented by two characters, the top character, "tsu," means harbor, while the bottom character, "nami," means "wave." In the past, tsunamis were sometimes referred to as "tidal waves" by the general public though they are not actually related to tides. ...read more.


The tsunami then can extend up to more than 300 metres inland destroying most of what is in its path. Impact * By the end of the day more than 150,000 people were dead or missing and millions more homeless. * Earthquake led to a sequence of 15 quakes across the region of Andaman. * Travelled as much as 3,000 miles (nearly 5,000 kilometres) * The force of the tsunami killed people and destroyed property. * A tsunami wave less than a foot (30 centimetres) in height on the surface of the sea ocean, which went unnoticed by sailors. * Rapid surging of the ocean, more like an extremely powerful river or a flood than the advance and retreat of giant waves. * The Indian Ocean tsunami caused waves as high as 50 feet (15 meters) as it reached the coast * Hit eleven countries from Africa to Thailand * $675million(U.S) ...read more.


Earthquakes occur when any of the 12 or 13 tectonic plates collide at their boundaries. The present collision is due to compression between the Indian and Burmese plates. The initial eruption happened near the location of the meeting point of the Australian, Indian and Burmese plates. Scientists have shown that this is a region of compression as the Australian plate is rotating counterclockwise into the Indian plate. This means that the region of seismic activity has become extended extending in a region in the South Eastern Indian Ocean. Tsunamis are not entirely unknown in the Indian Ocean. Once the large amount of pent-up energy in the compression zones of the plate boundaries have been released, it takes another buildup of energy for another event of similar magnitude. This is unlikely in the short-term. Early warning is only one part of disaster risk management, disaster preparedness, vulnerability reduction and post-disaster relief and reconstruction. Location * Latitude 3.316, Longitude 95.855 * Off west coast of Sumatra south of India * North east Indian ocean ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    In December's tsunami in the Indian Ocean, an estimated 250,000-300,000 people were killed or ...

    4 star(s)

    However there was one informed prediction at this time " Professor John McCloskey and his colleagues at the University or Ulster predicted that the damage to the earths crust would trigger the 8.7 magnitude earthquake that struck off the coast of Sumatra.

  2. How much are humans to blame for Australian bushfire devastation in February 2009?

    Their bark burns extremely easily due to the eucalyptus oil with them and therefore cause the more rapid spread of the fire. This means that people are not warned of the fires quickly approaching them due to the speed at which the fires are moving.

  1. b) What are i) the prime causes of and ii) the most effective remedies for ...

    The lack of vegetation also means that there is more evaporation due to reduced shade which draws the minerals and salts to the surface, increasing salinity and hence making it harder for plants to recover and grow there unless they are adapted to handle high levels of salt.

  2. The tsunami disaster

    now flowed away from the fault in a series of giant waves. The only people in the world to have any idea what had happened were thousands of kilometres away on the island of Hawaii. But, relying on seismic data alone, the scientists at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre had no idea the earthquake had unleashed an ocean-wide tsunami.

  1. Earthquakes are perhaps one of natures most breathtaking, yet deadly and destructive wonders.

    In today's world there exists a massive economic gulf between those countries in the developed and developing world. Developed countries such as the USA and Japan enjoy enormous masses of financial and technological wealth, whilst those in Bangladesh and India suffer from disease, famine, starvation and extreme poverty.

  2. To what extent is the impact of an earthquake related to its strength. (30) ...

    In contrast, LEDC?s don?t have the ability to prepare, recover and react to the situation. This is due to the low income and low political stability, which also includes corruption in some situations. This means they simply cannot afford recovery and rely on other countries and charities providing aid to support the effects of the impacts.

  1. Tectonic Activity - A general introduction

    These ?float? on the underlying semi-molten asthenosphere and move relative to each other. Plate tectonics is the study of the movement of these plates and the resultant landforms. It is at plate boundaries (margins) that most of the world?s major landforms occur, and where earthquake, volcanic and mountain-building zones are located.

  2. The Japanes Tsunami Disaster.

    Economic effects The tsunami caused a large negative impact on the economy of Japan but lesser effect on world trade and financial markets. Japan has lost considerable physical damage estimated to be from $195 billion to as much as $305 billion.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work