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Under what conditions and for what reasons do coastal sand dunes develop? With the aid of examples examine the impact of sand sunes on economic activities.

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Introduction

UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS AND FOR WHAT REASONS DO COASTAL SAND DUNES DEVELOP? WITH THE AID OF EXAMPLES EXAMINE THE IMPACT OF SAND DUNES ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES. Sand dunes are widespread deposition landforms. Coastal sand dunes are often found on sandy spits, at the mouths of estuaries, in bays, on intended islands and barrier beaches. Sand dunes can only develop under certain circumstances so the areas, which they form, are often specific. For sand to be transported there has to be a relatively strong wind. This is often found near the coast, as there are little barriers to slow down the prevailing winds. If the wind is not strong enough then the particles will not move. However if the wind is too strong then the particles will not be deposited so once again the sand dunes will not form. Dry sand is transported a lot easier than wet sand. This is because the water acts as a glue and holds the sand molecules together. This makes them more difficult to be moved a s they are now much heavier. ...read more.

Middle

I the particles are too small then they will not be deposited soon enough o form sand dunes. But also if the particles are too large they will not be able to be moved at all. The particles, which are the right size, are often moved by saltation. This is where the particles are moved only by the strongest winds blow and soon come back down to the ground when the wind is slowed. The particles therefore move in a hopping movement. Another method of transport is surface creep. This occurs when the larger particles are thrown by the wave and whilst landing throw the nearby sand particles forward. This is a very slow movement. Once the sand particles are being moved they need the wind flow to be blocked or stopped. Any obstacle such as plants, litter and walls can do this. If there is no common obstacle and the sand simply relies on lack of wind to stop moving then the deposition of sand would be too varied for a sand dune to form. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are two main types of sand dunes vegetation sand dunes and transverse sand dunes. Transverse sand dunes are constantly on the move in the direction of the prevailing winds as there is no vegetation to keep them together. Vegetation sand dunes are more stable and do not move this is because plants are able to grow here and hold the sand together However the vegetation cover can sometime be broken if the vegetation cover is poor. Burrowing animals such as rabbits can also cause problems as they can dig through the vegetation and weaken the sand dune that can now be damaged by the wind and water. Transverse sand dunes can often cause problems. This is because they are able to move freely in the direction of the prevailing winds covering everything in their way. This has obvious consequences on the people and environment nearby. Transverses sand dunes are common in dry environments as the sand is nearly always dry so can be transported easily. Mobile sand dunes cause many problems. Crops can be destroyed as well as people's homes t is therefore important for governments and individuals to try and control the sand dunes. ...read more.

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