• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Urban deprivation is one of the characteristics of large cities in all parts of the world. How similar are the initiatives being undertaken for its reduction between cities in the more and less economically developed worlds.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Urban deprivation is one of the characteristics of large cities in all parts of the world. How similar are the initiatives being undertaken for its reduction between cities in the more and less economically developed worlds. The inner city areas of many Global cities have an image of decay with poverty, pollution, crime, overcrowding, poor housing conditions and unemployment. Such problems are more prevalent in inner-city areas than in other areas of the city. Deprivation has been caused by old industries closing down and increasing the unemployment levels which are not tackled due to the old workers not being skilled enough to work in these new factories or line of jobs. This happens more in MEDC's compared to LEDC's where overpopulation and urbanization have cause the problems in the inner city. Counterurbanization has been another problem within MEDC's as it has left houses derelict and the people would rather commute than live in the inner city. This has then led to out of town shopping centers being set up. In MEDC's the inner city initiatives for reversing the decline of the inner city started back in 1945 with comprehensive redevelopment. This program involved large-scale clearance of old terraces in order to provide space for new housing and inner city environmental features. Over twenty years 1.5 million properties wee knocked down in the inner city. ...read more.

Middle

Over 55,00 new houses, a mixture of low and high rise were built to replaced the cleared terraces reducing the housing density and population by up to 50% in some areas. The Hulme area was a typical Victorian area of Manchester and was tightly packed with terraces. Conditions were overcrowded and polluted with few housing having toilets. After the demolition of the terraces, shopping facilities were introduced in three areas. By 1972 the redevelopment of Hulme was completed with 5,000 new houses being built. Problems did arise with new properties leaking and then the heating bills were too high for the residents and many found the accommodation inappropriate. This area fell into a spiral of decline with growing unemployment, drugs and violence along with eh deteriorating environment. The Hulme city challenge was launched in 1992. This plan involved building of 3000 new homes, shops, roads, offices and community facilities to replace existing properties in a 60-hectare area. The funds of �200 million came from the government, local authority and private finance. Manchester faced other problems form the closure of the nineteenth century industries that left 24,000 jobs unavailable between 1974 and 1984. Plans included 2000 new houses and 375,000 square meters of industrial and commercial floor space to provide 10,000 jobs. In 1988 central Manchester was given n UDC to regenerate 200 hectares of land and buildings in the southern part of the city center. ...read more.

Conclusion

Waiting for the new residents building their homes would have caused a delayed the rail building so contractors were used to begin the building of properties. Along with the roads, water supply, streetlights and many other services. These services did face problems with many being left unfinished and extra floors being added without regulation. Some families sold their home for profit and the poorest were unable to afford these houses. These are some example of the initiatives being taken in order to solve the problem of urban deprivation. However there have been many other schemes and one of the most successful was that of the Favelas in Brazil redevelopment that won several prizes such as, the famous Habitat Award from the United Nations. These have been more successful as it didn't break up the families and kept the community spirit and the families could continue to access their place of employment. The similarities between the initiatives of the MEDC and LEDC worlds that have been undertaken for there reduction of urban deprivation are not all that similar. This is due to the fact that the MEDC's have more finance so there are able to use other schemes to tackle their problems. Also the fact that the problems they face are of a different cause. In the LEDC's it tends to be shanty towns are therefore have to look to house these people unlike the MEDC it not so overcrowding but unemployment due to the decline of the Industrial Revolution and recently Counterurbanization has left old Victorian buildings derelict and an eye-saw. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Population & Settlement section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Population & Settlement essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How successful are the regeneration schemes in Liverpool?

    4 star(s)

    What this achieved was a new Hall of Residence for Liverpool Uni, new hospital for mothers and babies, more than 250 houses including 78 private homes, Renshaws cake-decoration manufacturer employing 200 people. About 2,000jobs are being retained or created in services, manufacturing and construction.

  2. Case Study of Deprivation in a Rural Area - Cornwall

    and weed killers are being used, with a resultant reduction in bird populations. Eggs 45.3p per dozen Cheap eggs from overseas brought prices down to 27p per dozen. Only free-range eggs make a profit. Potatoes �77 per tonne �50-60 per tonne Only new potatoes in spring make a profit 5.

  1. London Docklands - Has the regeneration been a success or a failure?

    Container ships could not be sufficed, so other ports started to open, namely Tilbury and Antwerp, which could support the new bigger ships. As well as not having enough space now, the Dockland's were in constant battle with other ports to get business and investors.

  2. Regenerating the Inner City in Manchester

    Large companies like Kelloggs, Rank Hovis and Cerestar (glucose products) still remain and they have been joined by new firms including Ciba-Geigy, Ford Trucks and Konica. There is also a MGM Canon Cinema and a new Performing Arts Centre. The site also houses the Lowry collection which was recently completed.

  1. Essay on urban deprivation

    * High unemployment in inner city areas (where the old industries were once located) leads to social problems. * Changes in shopping have also caused problems. City centre locations are no longer favoured. There has been a recent growth in out of town shopping centres, which has led to the decline of many CBDs (central business districts).

  2. Microclimates.My purpose of this study is to establish whether my hypotheses are true or ...

    Thus, evaporative cooling is less, which contributes to the higher air temperatures. * Waste heat from city buildings, cars and trains is another factor contributing to the warm cities. Heat generated by these objects eventually makes its way into the atmosphere.

  1. Investigating the theory Tesco dominates shopping patterns in Purley

    Almost 48% travelled 0 to 2 miles to get to Purley. 26% travelled 3-5 miles, 10% travelled 6 to 8miles and a total of 16% moved more than 9 miles. These are evidence that not only people who lives in Purley travels to get to Purley centre.

  2. Evaluate the success of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes of urban decline ...

    it increased house prices from £130000 to £430000 making it difficult for people on lower salaries to live there; many original residents forced out of area or into social housing (social housing = 50% in 08) 2. There was a wealth gap between the richest and poorest residents (richest 20%

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work