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Urban Settlement in an LEDC where Urbansiation has caused environmental problems - Mexico City, Mexico

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Introduction

Urban Settlement in an LEDC where Urbansiation has caused environmental problems - Mexico City, Mexico * Before 1860 Mexico's population grew at a very slow rate but after getting rid of the large religious and civil land holdings by the reform laws of 1859, it increased to 13 million in 1900. * During the 20th century the growth rate was at 2 per cent making the population in 1990, 81 million and in 1997, 91 million. * The increase in Mexico's population has caused a high concentration of people in urban areas. * Before 1910 there was little internal migration in Mexico due to the hacienda system which kept workers bound to the farm on which they were employed. * After the Revolution in 1910 more people were allowed to move around the city. * Many people migrated to the cities and towns causing a high increases in urban population. * From 1930 there was a large increase in urban population in all Mexican states. Although this increase was due to migrations many of which were young migrants and urban population rose further due to natural increase. ...read more.

Middle

* The Valle de Mexico has lost 99% of its lakes, 75% of its woodlands and 71% of its rural land because of urbanisation. * It is estimated that 44% of housing in Mexico City is overcrowded with over 6.3 people per household, of which many lack basic services such as water, sewerage and electricity. * Other environmental problems are water supply, land subsidence, waste disposal and air pollution. * In 1993 one third of secondary school pupils in the industrialised northern sector showed a 7.2% reduction in lung capacity. * Mexico City's air pollution is made worse by the temperature, where cold air sinks down from the mountains trapping pollutants down at ground level. Dust from the former Lake Texacco to the east and from the huge volumes of waste matter dumped on open sites is blown over the city affecting the south east and north east. * Mexico City uses about 60m3 of water per second. The groundwater supply is based on the Mexico City aquifer, but this source is close to crisis and about one third of the city's water now has to be pumped in at great cost from outside the area. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are frequent underground fires and rainwater leaks chemical pollution into the water table. * Air Pollution Strategies: This is a serious problem in Mexico City during the last 20 years. * Levels on ozone were higher than the safe level on 71% of the days in 1986 and 98% of the days in 1992. * Pollutants, which originate from unburned liquefied petroleum gas used for cooking and heating is trapped in the high altitude basin. * There have been numerous strategies to control Mexico City's air but the carrying out of it ahs been limited: * Lowering sulphur content of oil and fuel * Retrofitting buses, vans and trucks to burn natural gas * Limiting carbon monoxide emissions from vehicles * Increasing use of unleaded fuel and equipping cars with catalytic converters * Restricting commuter traffic - intruded a ban on 'no driving day', where cars are not to be driven on one day of the week * Ban on new industries that are regarded as potentially polluting * Relocation of 200 foundries and steel mills * Closure of certain buildings an restricting vehicles use during high- pollution period ...read more.

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