Urbanisation in the less economically developed world creates more problems than it solves discuss
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Urbanisation in the less economically developed world creates more problems than it solves discuss Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities. Urbanisation occurs because people move from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities). This usually occurs when a country is still developing. Prior to 1950 the majority of urbanisation occurred in MEDCs (more economically developed countries). Rapid urbanisation took place during the period of industrialisation that took place in Europe and North America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Many people moved from rural to urban areas to get jobs in the rapidly expanding industries in many large towns and cities. Since 1950 urbanisation has slowed in most MEDCs, and now some of the biggest cities are losing population as people move away from the city to rural environments. This is known as counter-urbanisation. Since 1950 the most rapid growth in urbanisation has occurred in LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) in South America, Africa and Asia. Between 1950 and 1990 the urban population living in LEDCs doubled. In developed countries the increase was less than half. There are three main causes of urbanisation in LEDCs since 1950: 1. Rural to urban migration is happening on a massive scale due to population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas.
have the increased infrastructure or the money to provide it, this leads to over crowding, with many people living in tiny shelters often made out of left over materials. This overcrowding leads to an increase chance of disease often greater than if they were in a rural area. The perceived notion of jobs being easily available for the most part is not true and the situation is made worse with the continued migration of people into the urban areas. This often means people who move in are often left with no means of income and resort to rummaging through rubbish to find items which can be sold. This not only has health risks but also negates the point of migrating which is a better standard of living. The increase in the amount of people also puts a very large strain on existing resources and infrastructure causing congestion which causes pollution and making the place a much less desirable area to live in. The majority of the migration tends to go to the largest city at that time as it would have the largest perceived pull factors, this then leads to primeate cities which are disproportion ally larger than other cities within the country and this will make it harder to solve problems and leads to a concentrated area of decline and deprivation.
However the underlying problem which needs to be solved first is not the urbansisation itself but the general economic situation which causes it as well as prevents governments having the resources to deal with it. While specific national policies on urban development are essential in order to deal with specific urban and settlements issues, it is critical that the issues of housing and human settlements be seen within the broad framework of the pattern and nature of economic development. Many developing countries are currently experiencing the transition from primary economies to economies based on industrial and tertiary activities. These processes are at the root of the large-scale movement of people from rural to urban areas where in most cases, the increase in population have outstripped the capacity of the urban economy to create jobs and the municipal authorities to provide adequate social infrastructure. The critical issues therefore go beyond housing, health and education to the nature of growth and development, where macro - policies are important in determining the flow of resources that are needed to effectively address the issue of housing and urban development. These policies must first be sorted out and then this will lay to the foundations which will eventually allow the LEDC to solve their problems and also lead to a more stable economy. ?Adam Mowafi Geography Essay 1
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