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Using A Number Of Examples, Show What Problems Are Faced In ELDCs Due To Urbanization, What Solutions Were Attempted And How Successful Have They Been?

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Introduction

ESSAY: Using A Number Of Examples, Show What Problems Are Faced In ELDCs Due To Urbanization, What Solutions Were Attempted And How Successful Have They Been? Cities all around the world face some sort of dilemma. Whether those problems are major or minor, or whether the city belongs to an EMDC (Economically More Developed Country) or an ELDC (Economically Less Developed Country), all of those cities make attempts in order to solve their crisis. This essay will investigate problems and solutions that cities in ELDCs face. The successfulness of each solution will be briefly evaluated. Four actual examples of cities will be examined; Rio de Janeiro, Bangkok, Jakarta, and Calcutta... Rio de Janeiro is a city among the ELDCs. This city is located by a bay in South America and has a population of a little over 10 million people, which also makes it a megacity. Similar to the last two cities investigated, Rio also has experiences a problem with overcrowding and, consequently, shelter and housing. Around half a million people take the streets to be their home and another two million people live in favelas and poor quality housing. These less fortunate residents are not applicable to benefit from running water, sewage systems or electricity and have no legal right to be on the land. This means that if another family wanted to buy the land that specific family would have to move without any say. An attempted solution was when the government cleared all the favelas and built new homes. However this was not successful as the new homes were almost as bad as the favelas. ...read more.

Middle

As a result, much of the population pumps their water from the country, which may be harmful as the water may be polluted. Unfortunately this still means that many citizens of Jakarta yet do not have continuous running water. As the population is increasing rapidly, there are many consequences that Jakarta face. Some of these consequences include less employment opportunities for some people (as not all people are educated well, job posts provided are being occupied quickly, etc) and an increase in traffic, which also has an effect on the environment, and much more (including the safety of people, property, etc). The fact that jobs have become rare, especially for the more uneducated citizens has forced a part of the population to own small kiosks and to vend on the road-sides. This type of job is very hectic and yet can pay off half the fee of school and also pay for food. The market of items sold includes magazines, small toys and much more. However, as Indonesia has many factories and industries, the opportunity of obtaining a job for some people increases. Many factories also operate during the night; this enables people who are busy during the day to acquire a night shift job. One of the most popular factories in Indonesia is the shoe factories. Many famous shoe companies, such as Nike, Adidas and Reebok have their base in Indonesia. However this job too is very hectic and not very high paying but is "nevertheless, better than being a farmer." Indonesia is home for many kinds of traffic. From simple bikes to much more sophisticated vehicles such as cars. ...read more.

Conclusion

The development of the elevated train route took quite a while to construct, which is a disadvantage economical setbacks. However, as soon as it was built many residents of Bangkok used the elevated train as their principal means of transport. Jakarta's plan to control traffic was somewhat passive; toll-roads were allocated at many places in the city. However this just made it worse for the poorer citizens, but yet encouraged more people to car pool, which meant decreasing pollution from fumes emitted by motor vehicles. This shows that constructing a different mode of transport, if traffic is a problem in a city, would be a good idea. If the road is the primary source of travel, it would be a good initiative to build a new underground like the one portrayed in Calcutta. However, if a city is suffering from overcrowding, it would be a good idea to establish a new town close to the main city. This plan though is very risky as there is every possible chance it may not go as planned. Thus planning is necessary and quite vital when it comes to making all these decisions and choices. Therefore, as stated in the beginning of this paper, it can be said that cities all over the world experience some problems once in a while. In this study/analysis, four cities in particular were viewed and their problems were examined; Rio de Janeiro, Bangkok, Jakarta and Calcutta. All these four cities are part of economically less developed countries. They experience problems such as overcrowding, traffic, employment, health threats, housing and many others. These problems occur in many scales, from minor to major. However, all these cities attempt to solve whatever problems they face; some succeed, while others need to try harder. ...read more.

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