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Volcanoes are more dangerous hazards than earthquakes discuss the truth of this statement.

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Introduction

Volcanoes are more dangerous hazards than earthquakes discuss the truth of this statement. Both volcanoes and earthquakes are caused by the movement of magma beneath the earths crust. The crust can be between six and seventy kilometres thick, this can be symbolised by the skin of an apple. The crust is both on land and under sea's, however the composition of the crust changes. Oceanic crust is denser and usually composes of silicon and magnesium; where as continental crust is lighter and usually composes of silicon and aluminium. Beneath the Mohorovicic discontinuity the convection currents of the liquid mantle control the movement of the tectonic plates, causing both volcanoes and earthquakes. The convection currents vary in size and can be anywhere in between 800 and 1200 miles across. These convection currents move the huge tectonic plates, the boundary's of these plates are called fault lines and are the areas in which both volcanoes and earthquakes occur. ...read more.

Middle

Volcanoes are capable of being predicted, if accurate prediction is linked with a towns authority it can save thousands of lives .There are two main ways both are in use at present on active volcanoes around the world. Sulphur dioxide concentrations can be measured in gas emissions; this indicates the presence of magma moving up through the cracks in the rocks. Seismographs can also be used, different patterns in the graph, called A and B waves, A waves can indicate the cracking of rock. B waves can be used to detect resonance within the rock indicating movement of magma, this concept was theorised by Dr Bernard Chouet. Volcanoes are hard to protect against showing the devastating nature of the materials expelled from volcanoes, lava when fresh burns at 1200�C and can move from 4 to 40 mph. ...read more.

Conclusion

These techniques don't provide an accurate warning; showing the unpredictable and dangerous nature of earthquakes. A method of long term protection is usually adopted; shock absorbers and specialist foundations have shown good success rates. However some protections have been shown to completely fail, a specially built highway in Japan was meant to withstand earthquakes instead it collapsed crushing hundreds of motorists. Both hazards are deadly and ruin both property and human life; however volcanoes in my opinion are more dangerous than earthquakes. Earthquakes although cannot be predicted can be protected against saving thousands of lives. Volcanoes although can be predicted cannot be defended against, even if towns are evacuated they are still destroyed creating huge humanitarian and economic problems. Accurate volcano prediction if in place isn't always linked up with towns in danger; this makes the prediction useless anyway. Finally Volcanoes also have lasting implications; their secondary effects such as lahars can be felt for generations. ...read more.

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