• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Was the Copenhagen summit COP15 a success?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Was the Copenhagen summit COP15 a success? COP15 was a gathering of political leaders to agree on an accord to combat climate change. The UNFCCC agreed to approve the draft accord on 18th December 2009. The first earth summit took place in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, 4 years after the IPCC was established. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was agreed on which committed countries to preventing "dangerous climate change". Shortly after the IPCC established a strong link between man-made emissions and the rising global temperature, the Kyoto Protocol was agreed under the UNFCCC in 1997. This was a breakthrough for the battle against climate change and also determined the first and it seems the only emission reduction targets. The protocol was finally made legally binding in 2005. The most recent earth summit before COP15 was the Ponzan Climate conference in Poland in 2008. Unfortunately the progress on negotiations was slow mainly due to the elections going on in the USA. Within this time span the IPCC made four assessments, and evidence of the effects of climate change started occurring in the form of melting glaciers, severe drought and heat waves, and hurricane Katrina. COP15 was meant to be a leap forward in the combat against climate change, with bigger, complex plans for a low-carbon future. ...read more.

Middle

There are already schemes operating in major deforesting countries such as Brazil and Indonesia, and international aid will have a significantly positive impact on the effectiveness of these schemes. A Technology Mechanism to accelerate the development of technology to support adaptation and mitigation was also mentioned. This is particularly crucial in respect of those developing countries that are already feeling the effects of climate change and need faster advances in technology in order adapt to them. However, there is no specific detail of where the funds will come from or guarantee that they will transpire. Many feel Gorden Brown, who has decided to use the already existing UK overseas aid budget to fund the CGCF (thereby using the same funds "twice"), has already exploited the lack of specificity. This means that part of the financial aid that would otherwise combat ongoing poverty and vulnerability to natural disasters is reduced by the amount that must now be committed to mitigating climate change - recession-induced penny-pinching. Apart from that, the deadline is far too far away and the budget barely a fifth of what is needed for LEDCs to cope with climate change according to WWF. Inflation is also likely to devalue the fund considerably by 2020. ...read more.

Conclusion

With this in mind, COP15 has still committed no emission reduction goals anywhere in the treaty apart from "recognition" of the need to keep the global temperature rise below 2C. Finally, the USA were fully behind the COP15 agreement but still turned up with very low ambitions, prepared to reduce emission by just 4% below 1990 levels compared to the EU's promise of a 20% reduction below 1990 levels. This sort of dedication was also applied to the Kyoto Protocol when the USA, who was at the time responsible for 25% of global emissions, pulled out of the Kyoto Protocol saying it was flawed. This participation of the USA was initially crucial to the ratification of the treaty but luckily Russia did sign bringing the reductions quota up to the required level and the treaty was able to go ahead. Only developed countries were required to commit to emission reduction goals, and big developing countries (and big emitters) such as India, China and Brazil did not have to ratify. COP15 did succeed in bringing all nations rich and poor together with the one subject in mind and LEDCs were also required to show some ambition towards emission cuts assuming financial help from developed countries. However, as mentioned before, there were no binding agreements over any emission goals. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. What are the effects of Deforestation?

    This results in increased water regulation, allowing for a more rapid recovery from droughts and abiotic stresses. In exchange, these plants provide the fungi with sugars produced through photosynthesis (Harley, J.L., Smith, S.E, Mycorrhizae Symbiosis (1983), Academic Press, London). Recently, a study done in Venezuela suggests that mycorrhizae innoculation could be used to aid in rehabilitation of deforested soils.

  2. Evaluate The Impact Of Deforestation In Indonesia.

    Debt also remains a crushing problem for many poor countries, and currently exceeds US$1 trillion. Indonesia is one of the 17 most indebted countries, and sees its rainforests as a way of paying this debt. Often timber is sold below market value in order to undercut the competition and earn the foreign currency required to pay the debt.

  1. Russia's dilemma - Is Russia going to sign the Kyoto treaty?

    emission giants, China and India, aren't covered by the protocol since they are considered developing countries.4 Under these circumstances, Russia is faced with the dilemma of ratifying or resigning the Kyoto treaty and Russian government has been trying to weigh the pros and cons of signing the treaty based on Moscow's economic and foreign policy goals.

  2. ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE

    Within the Public Sector environment, Housing Providers have had extensive pressures put upon them since 1988 by the Government. The requirement to bring homes up to a decent standard was following the government identifying social housing properties were in very poor conditions and that an estimated �19 billion was required to bring the properties up to a 'Decent Standard'.

  1. A report concerning new business development in the local area, which is the Paddington ...

    Edgware road: the presenter stated that the antique shops in Edgware road and Church Street were not affected by this development. They are aware that there are more people coming to the area and that this will widen the market, yet they believe not many other antique shops will be open.

  2. This investigation focuses on an area of the west bank of the medina estuary ...

    The activities of the people sited seem to be mostly related to the type of land use in the area. Analysis These proportional circles show the amount of litter compared to the amount of birds at each site. The amount of litter is a good indication of the quality of

  1. Political & Economic & Environmental Aspects of the Kyoto Protocol - The issue of ...

    The Americans created an "all in" policy. That is, both developed and under-developed nations should be required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and comply with the treaty. As it stands now, China and India can increase their emissions - they are not bound by the treaty. Consequently, the US objected.

  2. In the past years it has not been known if Canada should ratify and ...

    The conference that took place during 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was the largest gathering of leaders in world history. Leaders of 108 nations showed up, and a total of 172 countries sent delegations. In 1972 the connection between greenhouse gases and global warming was not something that was heard about.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work