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Water - notes on problems and politics of watere supply in the world.

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Introduction

Water Conflicts Water = Fundamental human need. :( Demand supply doesn't match! Potential for local and international conflict is Future water supply is in doubt due to unsustainable use and climate change. Vulnerable population = suffer most! The Hydrological Cycle Closed system --> goes round and round, never any more or less in the system. Water Crisis: * Amount of water in world is limited. No infinite supply! * Water = 2/3 of earth's surface. Most too salty = unusable. * 2.5% not salty but unreachable (in glaciers and ice caps) Fresh water - 20% in remote areas and rest comes as flood water. * Next 2 decades usage will by 40% * 70% used in agriculture. 2020 need 17% more to feed the world. * 1 in 5 worldwide cant access drinking water * High child death due to hunger or diseases. Reasons for the water crisis: 1. Growing population 2. ...read more.

Middle

Water supply is controlled by climate factors!! Water supply is a balance between precipitation totals and evapotranspiration potentials and is controlled by aquifers. Water pollution! 2 types: Water Bourne = Typhoid and Cholera -> oral face contamination due to lack of sanitation Water washed diseases: = Scarce water (drinking and cooking) 1st demand Washing (leprosy) and Irrigation (luxury) 2nd demand Mosquitoes --> malaria, dengue fever, river blindness (water is a breeding ground) Not just about quantity but the quality of water! Ground water = pollution less obvious than surface water --> aquifers become polluted, feed surface water = Salinisation due to over abstraction. Salinisation = the process whereby soluble salts accumulate within the soil. ''Dilutions is the solution to pollution!'' With over 8 billion people on the planet, disposing of sewage waste is a major problem. In developing countries, many people still lack clean water and basic sanitation (hygienic toilet facilities). ...read more.

Conclusion

* South west of Guwahati city. * It is a large natural wetland having great biological and environmental importance. * It's the only water storage basin for the city. * Agricultural activates and farmers depend on the water lake. * Designated as a ramsar site (conservation of the land) Deepor Beel is on a flood plain --> when it floods water can flow into it. Toxico, Ecuador One of the most diverse regions in the world. 3 distinct regions (minus Galapagos):- 1. El Oriente --> Amazon part of rainforest in the east. 2. La Costa --> Western Pacific coast. 3. La Sierra --> Andes Mountains, centre of country. Operations up to 1992, Texaco spilled 17 million gallons of oil from pipeline and dumped 18 million gallons directly into the rainforest, contaminating 1,700 square miles leaving extremely dangerous conditions. Oil was dumped into pits around the jungle, water spread into the rivers. Soil and rivers are so polluted that nothing grows, fish are all dying and drinking water is now poisoned. ...read more.

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