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What are the effects of an out-of-town shopping centre on an existing shopping city centre

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Introduction

What are the effects of an out-of-town shopping centre on an existing shopping city centre Urban Environment, the physical environment in urban areas with its complex mix of built and natural elements. Urban environments are increasingly studied, and their importance recognized, from a variety of perspectives. Some interpretations of the term include social and cultural aspects-for instance the values, behaviours, and traditions of the urban population-and these can have a profound influence on the quality of life in urban areas, as can the competence and accountability of the institutions appointed to manage or safeguard it. Obviously a new shopping centre is causing a division between the older centre and the new out-of-city centre. With the transport and facilities provided people today are willing to travel distances 30 minutes away by car. Advantages of the older shopping centres are that they are in the heart of the city and other services as well as the shopping centre can be provided. Many times centres in central business districts get more funding by the government and companies due to their location and transport quality. Many city centres aren't in a convenient position due to the older town planning and the lack of space and sometimes they don't keep in pace with the modern lines of structures. New shopping centres are more modern, better equipped with high technology, ergonomic environment and simplified internal design, for the visitors to learn quickly the sights and places of their interest. Usually they also offer more facilities for less money in order to attract new visitors e.g. parking. Their location and provisions are better suited covering a wide geographical area as the studies take place upon newly provided data, such as population and population density, average GDP of the surrounding area population, attractions in the area, distance and accessibility to the nearest shopping centre and the services provided by it, average traffic through the seasons and motorways serving the location of the city centre. ...read more.

Middle

Until relatively recently, it was regarded as a pleasant city site. Now it has serious problems of air pollution because the high altitude, lack of winds, and shape of the valley in which it is situated make the site ill-suited to a very large city with a high concentration of industries and motor traffic, unless emissions from those sources are strictly controlled. Mexico City is also one among many cities where the demand for fresh water has outstripped the capacities of local supplies, or local sources have become too polluted to use. Many major cities that were once adequately served by local ground and surface water sources now have to import water from more distant catchment areas, often with damaging ecological consequences for these areas. Cities have always been much influenced by the knowledge and culture of their inhabitants. This can be seen both in the form of buildings and in the design of neighbourhoods and public spaces. These characteristics were shaped by local climatic and geographical conditions; building design, the materials used, and the organization of public and private spaces helped to moderate extreme temperatures, provide protection from rain and wind, and, where needed, limit risks from natural hazards. However, these cultural differences are disappearing. In many major cities, it is only the historic centres or older settlements engulfed by the urban expansion that retain the characteristics that, for instance, distinguish the Islamic city from the Hispano-American city. This diversity is being eroded as modern building designs and materials become internationalized and as the ready availability of fossil fuels and electricity allows temperatures within city buildings to be controlled, regardless of building design and climatic conditions. Poverty is also eroding these cultural differences in many cities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Here, the illegal and informal settlements in which so many city inhabitants live also present a more uniform picture, as widespread use is made of temporary materials for buildings, and as homes are squeezed on to any land site from which the inhabitants might escape eviction. ...read more.

Conclusion

Legislation has sought to reduce the environmental damage that urban wastes cause in their surrounding ecosystems, but this has often proved difficult as the environmental impacts take place outside the urban boundaries and the jurisdiction of the urban authorities. It is even more difficult to make urban populations feel responsible for the ecological problems to which they contribute when the resources they draw are from more distant ecosystems. V SUSTAINABLE CITIES Cities have an important part in achieving sustainable development-the meeting of human needs without a level of resource use and waste generation that threatens the local, regional, or global environment. Moving from a concern for the urban environment to a concern for sustainable development has resulted in a growing awareness of two new responsibilities of urban citizens and governments. The first is a concern for the environmental impact of urban-based production, consumption, and wastes on the needs of all people, not just those within the urban jurisdiction. The second is an understanding of the finite nature of many natural resources (or the ecosystems from which they are drawn) and of the capacities of ecosystems in the wider regional and international context to absorb or break down wastes. This means setting limits on the rights of city enterprises or consumers to use scarce resources and to generate non-biodegradable wastes. These wastes include greenhouse gases: global warming would bring many problems for urban centres-especially for the many major cities that are ports or on low-lying coastal areas-through sea-level rises and an increased instability of weather patterns. Perhaps the most important implication of this global awareness for cities in the wealthier countries is the role of urban authorities in promoting the needed unlinking of high living standards from high levels of resource use and waste generation. Many cities have taken the first step, especially those that have developed their own "Local Agenda 21s" (modelled on the sustainable development plan produced at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992). As yet, however, support for these plans has rarely emerged at national levels of government. ...read more.

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