• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What Is Seismology??

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What Is Seismology?? The study of earthquakes and the structure of the earth, by both naturally and artificially generated seismic waves. An earthquake is defined as the vibration of the Earth's surface by sound or shock waves usually generated by the energy released from rocks rupturing under stress or by friction between moving rock materials at or mostly below Earth's surface. A seismologist is a scientist who studies earthquakes and seismic waves. CHAPTER 1 - What Are Seismic Waves? Seismic waves are the waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. They are the energy that travels through the earth and is recorded on seismographs. How Are Seismic Waves Recorded? A seismometer records the vibrations from earthquakes. Mechanical versions work by way of a large mass, freely suspended. In the example on the left, a rotating drum records a red line on a sheet of paper. If the earth moves (in this case from left to right) the whole machine will vibrate too. However, the large mass tends to stay still, so the drum shakes beneath the pen, recording a squiggle! ...read more.

Middle

At the plate boundaries of an oceanic and continental plate, the oceanic plate subducts under the continental plate causing an earthquake. This subduction causes off shore trenches, which is where the sea is at its deepest. As the oceanic plate subducts beneath the continental plate, it begins to melt as it enters the hot mantle, producing magma. Volcanic chains can be formed from the fold mountains due to the subduction but that is only if there is a way for the magma beneath the earth surface to reach the ground surface, for example a crack. We know that due to the waves travel times, they cannot be moving through the earthy in a straight line. At a constructive or transform plate boundary, two plates slide side by side past each other in opposite directions. The forces exerted on either plate contribute to the rock style found there. The earth is structured as follows: The crust is very thin (about 20km or so), and the mantle has the properties of a solid but can flow very slowly. The core accounts for just over half the earth's radius and it is made from iron and nickel. ...read more.

Conclusion

a continental plate. When this happens, volcanoes and earthquakes occur. Trenches and fold mountains are also formed. 3. Conservative plate boundaries: Conservative plate boundaries occur when two plates slide past each other. When this happens, severe earthquakes can occur. 4. Collision plate boundaries: Collision plate boundaries occur when two continental plates move towards each other. When this happens, earthquakes occur and Fold Mountains are formed. CONCLUSION Seismic waves can be both very useful and very dangerous at the same time. Seismic waves can teach us so much about the Earth we live in. Plate tectonics can also teach us so much but can also be dangerous as they can cause earthquakes, volcanoes, and other natural disasters. Plate tectonics can teach us about the earths past and also what will happen to the earth in the future. Seismology has given many scientists ideas on how the Earth is structured. They have used the seismographs to figure out the differing effects of P and s-waves, and how they go through the earth, determining their behaviours. Scientists to discover the effects on and at plate margins used theories about plate tectonics. Because of volcanic eruptions and sever earthquakes, the Earth's crust is now considered to consist of several large slabs of rock and some smaller ones, called tectonic plates. Seismology is an advanced scientific research. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Plate Tectonics Project.

    The uncertainty for this result is rather large which at this time shows a definite tectonic interpretation. The SLR system at Shanghai is a neighbour to a VLBI system which has been a very successful. Yaragadee and Orroral, Australia There are two SLR sites on both coasts of Australia.

  2. At what points in this novel do you feel its author is breaking out ...

    wings" to comfort Dora and Nora at the beginning of the novel, miraculously with Nora in his arms.

  1. Earthquake is a shaking of the ground caused by the sudden breaking and shifting ...

    Compressional waves are the fastest seismic waves, and they arrive first at a distant point. For this reason, compressional waves are also called primary (P) waves. Shear waves, which travel slower and arrive later, are called secondary (S) waves. Body waves travel faster deep within the earth than near the surface.

  2. The Crust, The Mantle and The Core

    If the magma cools and hardens inside the earth it is called "intrusive" rock. These rocks cool slowly and have large crystals. When the magma comes out of the earth's crust through a volcano, it is called "extrusive".If It cools off quickly, the crystals that form are very small and if it cools slowly the crystals are larger.

  1. Seismic waves.

    Love, a British mathematician who worked out the mathematical model for this kind of wave in 1911. It's the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to-side. The arrow shows the direction that the wave is moving Rayleigh Waves The other kind of surface wave is the Rayleigh wave,

  2. Seismology is the study of earthquakes and how the waves emitted from them travel ...

    The high temperatures and pressure to form magma, which comes to the surface via volcanoes, often melt rock. The lithosphere: (crust and upper mantle). The earths crust and the outermost part of the mantle make up the lithosphere. The crust is much thicker under the continents than it is on

  1. Mount St. Helens - Natural disasters.

    It also destroyed 31 ships down river of it. The areas where there had been mudflows needed expensive dredging to remove the ash and debris. They travelled at 10-50 Mph. Losses to property and crops were set at more than $1.8 billion.

  2. Volcanic and seismic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that plate-tectonics theory ...

    continents but were geologically young features that resulted from the breakup of Pangaea Polar Wandering Curves 1. A turning point occurred in the 1950s, through the study of paleomagnetism. When magma cools and solidifies into rock, it becomes magnetized and takes on the prevailing polarity?the north-south directionality?of the Earth?s magnetic field (Fig.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work