• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month


Extracts from this document...


WHAT IS WASTE: A true, yet very simple definition of waste is something we don't want and throw away. Waste is an inevitable by-product of our use of natural resources. Waste is split into three categories of household (12%), industrial (78%) and commercial (10%) collectively referred to as "Controlled Waste". Certain wastes are classified as "Hazardous Waste" a very broad term for a wide range of substances that present different levels of risk. Some present a serious and immediate threat to the population and the environment, for example those which are toxic, could cause cancer or infectious disease. About three quarters of the UK's municipal solid waste is disposed of directly to landfill. Reuse and recycling (including composting) account for a further 13% of municipal solid waste. The remainder is pre-treated, mostly by incineration (approximately 9% of municipal solid waste). The remaining 1% is pre-treated using a variety of new or specialist methods which include gasification/pyrolysis; mechanical biological treatment (MBT); and anaerobic digestion. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR CONSIDERATION: Waste management is a very large scale activity which inevitably has consequences for Human Health and the Environment. ...read more.


The possible Environmental Effects of waste management operations have been investigated in several ways: � Monitoring levels of pollutants emitted from landfill sites in communities located near to landfill sites, where this is not already carried out as part of regulatory monitoring; � Studying how much particulate matter, micro-organisms, organic chemicals and methane is released from composting of municipal solid waste; � Measuring emissions of micro-organisms and fungal spores from all forms of municipal solid waste management; � Looking at what and how much is emitted to air, to sewer and in solid residues from processes which are not yet widely applied to municipal solid waste in this country - mechanical biological treatment, and anaerobic digestion. The available research includes reports from theEnvironment Agency, the UK Government, a recent study by the Irish Government, and work by the American Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Greenpeace, and other organisations. These reviews discuss and draw together the conclusions of other studies but don't usually put numbers on possible health effects or put the conclusions into context Substances Of Concern Carbon Dioxide Dioxins and Furans Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen Fluoride Individual volatile organic compounds: ...read more.


National, regional or local? _ Which waste streams will be included in the plan? Total waste, municipal waste, hazardous waste, packaging waste, other? _ Which sectors will be included in the plan? _ What is the time horizon of the plan? e.g. 3, 5 or 10 years? 4. Have the participants in the planning process been identified? Do they include government departments, local authorities, waste experts, representatives from the waste management sector and the waste generating industry, and NGOs? 5. Has the time schedule for preparation of the waste management plan been set? Time estimates for the work should be realistic. 6. Have any relationships between the waste management plan and other plans (e.g. spatial planning, energy planning, etc.) been identified? Do they influence elements in the waste management plan? CONCLUSION "The ideal is to produce no waste at all! But every one of us can reduce the amount we produce and re-use as much as possible of what's left What we can't re-use, we must try to recover by recycling or composting. When recycling or composting proves impossible, we should consider burning the waste to produce energy. Only as a last resort should we ever think of burying it." ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. A report concerning new business development in the local area, which is the Paddington ...

    They also need looking after like the environment and the developers are looking forward to an advanced and attractive area. In order to minimise these costs that do exist many actions can be taken. Firstly, water use is kept to a minimum through an automated rain detection system.

  2. Thailand Highways Management Project

    Then it falls towards the end. The information of the project cost estimation is compiled from an interview and disbursement guideline of Public Debt Department, Ministry of Finance, the World Bank and Department of Highway. 4.The Project Planning and Scheduling 4.1.

  1. Cooperatives and small-scale enterprises in solid waste re-use and recycling.

    In the context of this paper waste is defined as any unwanted material intentionally thrown away for disposal. However, certain wastes may eventually become resources valuable to others once they are removed from the waste stream (Solid waste management in Asia, www.worldbank.org).

  2. How brickwork and landfill site affects local people's life?

    And Marston Moretaine in between, with 3 average score. Figure A2-1 is about how local people are effected by the traffic jams that are caused by the brickworks. From this graph, we can see Wootton people felt they were effected by these traffic jams the most, with average score of 4.7.

  1. I am going to research waste pollution. I have chosen to research waste pollution ...

    I am going to relate my research to the Greenwich borough, and I am going to do this by seeing how many landfill sites or incineration companies there are and are these affecting the people that live near by.

  2. Waste, the Landfill Tax and the Inert Problem

    He also suggests that communities would simply move on when an area became too unpleasant to live in, a strategy that was followed by numerous successive civilisations. However in these early strategies can not be followed in a modern densely populated world, we do not have the space to move

  1. Enviromental Factors Affecting Nortel Networks

    Adapted from Carroll (2000), includes lievel of influence on strategy as a percentage Borgattis's (1996) definition would categorise Nortel Networks' stakeholder as well connected. The corporation cannot represent itself differently to each one. To the detriment of the organisation, if the stakeholders bonds to each other are stronger than those

  2. Global Warming: Should We Care? Analysis of two sceptical articles.

    Perhaps if he approached the essay in a different way, changed his tone and did not use the conference as the centerpiece I would feel differently about the Harvard graduate?s essay.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work