• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

'What problems do urban planners face? How are they to be solved?

Extracts from this document...


'What problems do urban planners face? How are they to be solved?' Urban planning is 'the discipline of land use planning' which attempts to balance social, economic and environmental factors to induce prosperity. Urban planners have a hoard of problems facing them, and through trial and improvement have formed many solutions to the issues that they encounter, most of which are still being tested in modern development. The problems range from devising appropriate aesthetics for settlements, to the prevention of urban sprawl and use of gentrification to prevent the occurrence of the doughnut effect. Some suggested and tried solutions include the construction of high rise flats and the establishment of green belts, following work from Ebenezer Howard in 1944. One of the primary problems of urban planning is the current condition of housing in inner city areas, which forces the often capital intensive modernisation of housing, known as gentrification. This is often seen as a simple and environmentally friendly solution to the construction of housing within and around the green belt on greenfield sites. The improvement of pre-existing brownfield sites would prevent the occurrence of the doughnut effect, whereby a settlement slowly expands outwards; the central areas become dated, deserted and run down with few amenities. The authorities were keen to prevent this from happening, whilst protecting Britain's famous green countryside. ...read more.


Finally social capital can suffer as housing becomes low-density and reliance on cars means that people do not even have the opportunity to meet neighbors when waiting for the bus, train etc. This may reduce the quality of life for many residents and prevent the formation of any community spirit. Furthermore public spaces such as parks can become less common as they are replaced with private, fenced in gardens which increase the sale value of properties and further reduce the chance of any social capital being gained. Generally the government endorses two predominant methods of preventing urban sprawl and solving this issue. The first of these is through physical barriers, such as the M25 around London. This makes the area unattractive and thus prevents the development of that area, which, in theory, closes development within a certain boundary. The second method is used around the country; green belts. Green belts are rings of green countryside around towns and cities within which urbanisation is strongly resisted, but not technically prohibited. The government sees many advantages to the use of green belts; initially they prevent urban sprawl and provide a green region for the urban population to practice leisure activities and relax. This contributes towards the government aim to preserving the environment and protecting some endangered species, including indigenous birds. ...read more.


The EU structural funds currently provide twice as much funding as the UK government and would contribute to the attraction of new employment as well as making general improvements to the quality of life offered in Consett. This would help to attract new residents and generate further demand for business, furthering an economic recovery. A final issue faced by urban planners is the availability of resources. A prime example of this is in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Phoenix is located in the state of Arizona, a predominantly dry and arid region of the US, with the Colorado River being virtually its only source of fresh water. Without crucial resources such as water no settlement can survive. This problem was solved through the construction of the Hoover dam on the Colorado River which provides the city with both electricity (through hydroelectricity) and water through the resultant reservoir. Through irrigation the city is now often described as an oasis, with luscious green farmland and golf courses. Without the river, Phoenix would be unable to exist thus proving that the availability of natural resources is just as important today as it has been throughout history. In conclusion, urban planners do face a large number of problems, though as proved; there are a large number of solutions that could be taken into account and used; government investment, use of brownfield sites and generation of employment to name a few. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. A Local Ecosystem-Mt Keira

    some organisms even depend on each other for their survival, including the leech and mammal or Birds Nest Fern and the tree. (Refer to Figure 9: Birds Nest Fern, on following page)

  2. Environmental Problems.

    roads get busier and more congested the noise levels soar * Factories and power plants are a huge noise pollutant-especially in old factories-the large machinery is not fitted with silencers and is extremely noisy throughout the majority of the day * Dams and electrical plants, mines etc Solutions: * Reduce

  1. Management of woodland area.

    Breaking branches or pollarding can badly damage the trees. It also depends on the trees, because if the trees are thin and young then they will die, but if the trees are quite old then they might not die but they will still be damaged and them damaged branches will take quiet some years to until they regenerate.

  2. Sustainable construction.

    Construction sites generate large quantities of waste material. This should be disposed of responsibly and not burned on site. - Preserve and enhance biodiversity. An effort should be made to provide habitat for any existing species of flora or fauna.

  1. PLANNING PERMISSION/POLICY:: Briggs & Mortar have commissioned Spencer Property to carry out a local ...

    * Adapt or modify the landscaping design to ensure the preservation of any land drainage ditches. Sustainable materials Materials used in development should not have an adverse impact on the wider environment through their production, toxicity, durability and recycling potential.

  2. Rio de Janeiro's Shanty Towns.

    Other crops include maize, yams and plants that provide fibres or medicine. The Rainforest Provides: After a tribe has moved on to another part of the forest, the clearing is soon seeded by the surrounding trees and plants, and the area becomes overgrown.

  1. Pollution levels - Record the pollution level of a particular pollutant in five different ...

    ,ugm - microrganisms per cubic meter * ,um - micro meter (one millionth of a meter) Before I discuss the main pollutants and their health effects, below is a diagram of how NO2 and SO2 are formed. * Burning fossil fuels is the main cause of atmospheric pollution.

  2. With reference to transport management in urban areas, discuss the extent to which sustainability ...

    This integration meant that using a bicycle became as convenient, if not more, than using a car, and as such car use fell by 23%. As well as this, Freiburg modernised its tram system by connecting all the major city districts as well as building links with the Breisgau-S-Bahn regional rail system.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work