• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

With reference to named examples, explain the causes, effects and solutions to famine

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

With reference to named examples, explain the causes, effects and solutions to famine (10 marks) Famine has been a global problem for many hundreds of years, but the worst famines have been during the last two centuries, the 18th and 19th Centuries. The worst famine in recorded history was the Great Chinese famine between 1958 and 1961. The famine had many different causes; both human and physical, and is the most deadly. The effects of the famine were widespread; China was effected socially, economically, politically and environmentally. Arguably the most influential causes of the Great Chinese famine were human. The Communist Party of China that had taken hold in 1949, after the civil war, led by Chairman Mao Zedong, launched a new policy known as the 'Great Leap Forward' in 1958. In this policy he forced the collectivisation of agriculture, and farms were organised into vast, badly managed communes. The communes were ordered to plant less grain to save on costs and as the workers were forced to work, there was less incentive to work as effectively as they had before collectivisation; this caused the production of grain to fall by 15% in 1959 and a further 15% in 1960 and did not recover until 1962! ...read more.

Middle

During the drought, the lack of water and high temperatures had baked the land hard, so that when the monsoon season arrived in July-September 1959 the monsoon rainwater could not infiltrate into the soil as it had become impermeable, and had to lie on top of the land and be transported as overland flow, which resulted in even more floods devastating land, and also meant transport links in most of South/ South-East China were affected, so the little aid that was sent out by the government could not get to the areas in dire need of it. As a result of the Great Chinese Famine, between 15 and 30 million people died. The range of deaths is so large because the government tried to cover up the true extent of the famine and only recently are researching the full impact that the famine had in China. The death rate in Guizhou Province was the worst nationally during the famine at 52 per 1000 and in Henan Province it was 39 per 1000 in 1960. ...read more.

Conclusion

To help the country in the long term, in 1972 China bought 13 of the world's largest, most modern nitrogen fertiliser plants. More purchases of these plants followed; China then became the world's largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers. They used them agriculturally in the growth of their own grain to help prevent famine should it occur again, by growing more grain and storing more in case there should be another famine. They have also built more food storehouses, so that if famine strikes, food can be quickly and evenly distributed. Over the years they have also built more reservoirs, such as the Three Gorges Dam in Hubei Province. Water from these enormous reservoirs can then be used to irrigate the soil for agriculture and restore the depleted groundwater that is used during droughts. The use of this water can be carefully monitored so that it can be used sustainably. In conclusion, the Great Chinese Famine was one the largest ever human tragedies, but as a result of poor government policy and many natural disasters in quick succession, the scale of the disaster augmented beyond belief. Only with international intervention and a change in policy was the famine stopped. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. Water Crisis in Pakistan, its Impact on the Economy and Potential Solutions.

    Analysis of the Situation Pakistan is one of the poorest countries of the world, where as on the other hand it is one of richest in its population increasing capabilities. Our population has surpassed the 140 million mark by now and is still increasing at an alarming rate of about 3%, which is definitely needs to be checked.

  2. What are the effects of Deforestation?

    This completes the nitrogen cycle. Carbon is stored in the following five major sinks (1) As organic molecules found in the biosphere (2) As the gas carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (3) As organic matter in soils (4) In the Lithosphere as fossil fuels and sedimentary rock (5)

  1. Formation and effects of acid rain.

    can survive in those waters, which proves that the lake water is purified. However, the best solution to the acid deposition is to regulate the emission pollutants at the source, the source could be Power stations. Many industries in eastern Canada have switched to using fuels free from Sulphur dioxide, or low in content of Sulphur dioxide.

  2. Positive and negative effects of the Three Gorges dam project in China.

    The poor inland region will be developed, making china better place as a whole. Ships will be able to come with 10,000 tonne worth of things. China will be exporting and importing from the world's biggest city and now the world's biggest port.

  1. What Are the Effects of Rapid, Large-scale Clearance of Tropical Rainforests?

    People who live in the rainforests or people who have the money to afford to feed themselves can easily condemn the annihilation of the rainforests. They don't have to think about the people who would lose their jobs and

  2. Environmental considerations have, in recent years, become increasingly important within Design of consumer products. ...

    To reduce emissions during short trips, when the catalytic converter is less effective, and driving during winter-time, a separate requirement on "cold start emissions" was introduced. This part of the legislation is of particular importance for city driving where the average trip normally is very short.

  1. Using named examples, assess the contribution of large scale water management projects in increasing ...

    Another scheme which has attempted to improve water security in Egypt is the Aswan High Dam. Most of Egypt only receives less than 125mm of rain a year and the Nile is the only river in Egypt therefore the management of the Nile to create water security is absolutely vital.

  2. With reference to transport management in urban areas, discuss the extent to which sustainability ...

    This integration meant that using a bicycle became as convenient, if not more, than using a car, and as such car use fell by 23%. As well as this, Freiburg modernised its tram system by connecting all the major city districts as well as building links with the Breisgau-S-Bahn regional rail system.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work