• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

With reference to named examples, explain the causes, effects and solutions to famine

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

With reference to named examples, explain the causes, effects and solutions to famine (10 marks) Famine has been a global problem for many hundreds of years, but the worst famines have been during the last two centuries, the 18th and 19th Centuries. The worst famine in recorded history was the Great Chinese famine between 1958 and 1961. The famine had many different causes; both human and physical, and is the most deadly. The effects of the famine were widespread; China was effected socially, economically, politically and environmentally. Arguably the most influential causes of the Great Chinese famine were human. The Communist Party of China that had taken hold in 1949, after the civil war, led by Chairman Mao Zedong, launched a new policy known as the 'Great Leap Forward' in 1958. In this policy he forced the collectivisation of agriculture, and farms were organised into vast, badly managed communes. The communes were ordered to plant less grain to save on costs and as the workers were forced to work, there was less incentive to work as effectively as they had before collectivisation; this caused the production of grain to fall by 15% in 1959 and a further 15% in 1960 and did not recover until 1962! ...read more.

Middle

During the drought, the lack of water and high temperatures had baked the land hard, so that when the monsoon season arrived in July-September 1959 the monsoon rainwater could not infiltrate into the soil as it had become impermeable, and had to lie on top of the land and be transported as overland flow, which resulted in even more floods devastating land, and also meant transport links in most of South/ South-East China were affected, so the little aid that was sent out by the government could not get to the areas in dire need of it. As a result of the Great Chinese Famine, between 15 and 30 million people died. The range of deaths is so large because the government tried to cover up the true extent of the famine and only recently are researching the full impact that the famine had in China. The death rate in Guizhou Province was the worst nationally during the famine at 52 per 1000 and in Henan Province it was 39 per 1000 in 1960. ...read more.

Conclusion

To help the country in the long term, in 1972 China bought 13 of the world's largest, most modern nitrogen fertiliser plants. More purchases of these plants followed; China then became the world's largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers. They used them agriculturally in the growth of their own grain to help prevent famine should it occur again, by growing more grain and storing more in case there should be another famine. They have also built more food storehouses, so that if famine strikes, food can be quickly and evenly distributed. Over the years they have also built more reservoirs, such as the Three Gorges Dam in Hubei Province. Water from these enormous reservoirs can then be used to irrigate the soil for agriculture and restore the depleted groundwater that is used during droughts. The use of this water can be carefully monitored so that it can be used sustainably. In conclusion, the Great Chinese Famine was one the largest ever human tragedies, but as a result of poor government policy and many natural disasters in quick succession, the scale of the disaster augmented beyond belief. Only with international intervention and a change in policy was the famine stopped. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. Water Crisis in Pakistan, its Impact on the Economy and Potential Solutions.

    On the other hand the growth rate of agriculture is decreasing due to water shortage. To keep up the pace of agricultural growth comparable to population growth, we must bring additional lands under cultivation. In order to achieve required growth targets in agriculture, we will need an estimated amount of

  2. Positive and negative effects of the Three Gorges dam project in China.

    The poorer people will benefits from this because there will be more jobs to go round e.g. tour guides. On the other hand, The Three Gorges Dam has many negative effects. The large reservoir behind the dam will flood 60,000 hectares of fertile farmland, 828 major cultural archaeological sites, Buddhist

  1. What are the effects of Deforestation?

    Nutrient levels in the soil are very low. This can be attributed to: * The chemical composition of the soil. The clays in the rainforest soil are less chemically active and therefore less efficient at retaining nutrients. * At depths of just a few centimeters below the soil surface, there is practically no organic matter at all.

  2. What Are the Effects of Rapid, Large-scale Clearance of Tropical Rainforests?

    as simple as saying "we are not going to cut any more trees down." However I feel that the way Brazil and other countries are trying to tackle the problem is galling.

  1. With reference to a range of detailed examples, explain the positive and negative CONSEQUENCES ...

    The water demands in cities such as LA and Las Vegas means that more water is being withdrawn from rives such as the Colorado or by removing groundwater. This has led to major changes in the Colorado delta where the water barely reaches the sea.

  2. 'Intensive farming has led to major environmental destruction'. Discuss this statement with reference to ...

    It lies in the West Coast of New Zealand. New Zealand's topography is varied with 50 percent of the land classifiable as steep, 20 percent as moderately hilly, and 30 percent as rolling or flat. Almost three quarters of New Zealand is covered by sedimentary rocks - sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, and limestone.

  1. Using named examples, assess the contribution of large scale water management projects in increasing ...

    It has also increased erosion ? river banks are collapsing because of increased scour, resulting in the loss of agricultural land. Water stress is a massive problem in California and it depends on 3 major water supply lines in order to supply its growing industry and population.

  2. With reference to transport management in urban areas, discuss the extent to which sustainability ...

    This integration meant that using a bicycle became as convenient, if not more, than using a car, and as such car use fell by 23%. As well as this, Freiburg modernised its tram system by connecting all the major city districts as well as building links with the Breisgau-S-Bahn regional rail system.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work