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With reference to one or more located examples, examine how urban change can lead to social and economic challenges

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´╗┐Sammy Jaber With reference to one or more located examples, examine how urban change can lead to social and economic challenges (25) Birmingham is the UK's third largest city with a population of over a million. It has a popular image of a modern and progressive city; however, this city has faced urban decay for over 100 years. It was known as ?workshop of the world? and ?a city of a thousand trades?. This was because it had vast natural resources of coal and iron and was therefore able to supply the world with manufactured goods. It was the first city in the world to be created in the industrial revolution, however since the 1950s it was faced with the global shift in manufacturing. The city has transformed its economy; almost 80% of its Economic output is now generated by the tertiary sector. It is a major core of banking, finance and insurance. Tourism is an increasingly important part of the city Economy. With major facilities such as the International Convention centre and the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham now accounts for over 40% of the UK conference and exhibition trade. ...read more.


Many of the residents of such lagging areas feel increasingly disaffected. Birmingham's population still shows strong polarisation. Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh, and it has a population of nearly 7 million people and it is three times the size of Birmingham but there are link between them. Both cities have been involved in the global shift in manufacturing. Dhaka has experienced urban change; transnational corporations have been drawn to Dhaka by its large supply of very cheap labour. HSBC banking and Siemens electronics are two TNCs that operate in Dhaka. The city has become particularly involved in the clothing and garment industry. It?s 'sweat shops' now produce clothes that are sold in the shops of most MEDC cities. The city has benefitted greatly from the growth of clothing manufacturing but there is still around 25% of unemployment in Dhaka. One cause of the unemployment is because of the high rate of population growth which is around 4% per year. The growth was caused by large volumes of rural -urban migration and high levels of fertility. Another reason for the high unemployment rate is because of the population growth exceeding the rate at which new jobs are being created. ...read more.


The city?s residents also suffer a very high crime rate and frequent outbreaks of political and religious violence. Urban change has led to social and economic challenges in MEDC cities such as Birmingham and LEDC cities such as Dhaka. Both cities have been experiencing urban growth; Birmingham?s population is becoming increasingly diverse. More than a third of the population is now from black and minority ethnic communities, and by 2026 it is expected that no single ethnic group will form most of the city's population. Where as in Dhaka the population has been growing at a pace of almost four per cent a year and is the the fastest among the South Asian cities, as all the major manufacturing industries are concentrating here, attracting masses of migrants. Issues and problems arise mainly because those whose job it is to manage urban areas fail to appreciate the scale and speed of growth. As a result, the provision of basic things such as water and sewage treatment, transport, housing and social services tends to fall behind the rising level of demand. It is in this widening gap between demand and supply that many of the issues associated with urban growth are occur. ...read more.

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