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Amebiasis was first described as a disease by a Russian physician, F. Losch, in 1875 (Anderson, 3).

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Deepa Dahal 11 December 1998 Biology Extra Credit Amebiasis Amebiasis was first described as a disease by a Russian physician, F. Losch, in 1875 (Anderson, 3). The history of amebiasis has centered on the relationship of amebas found in the intestinal tract of mammals and the role they play in causing disease (4). During the first half of this century, the study of amebiasis has evolved from a disease thought to be purely tropical and one that didn't necessarily require concern to one that is "practically cosmopolitan in its distribution" worldwide and easily treatable (Anderson, 6-8). Amebiasis indicates presence of Endamoeba histolytica, a protozoan in the class Rhizopoda, and it implies that certain invasion of the intestinal tract, especially the colon and liver, has occurred (MDE, 1). Endamoeba histolytica is a pathogen that is capable of invading and destroying the host's tissue without the aid of pathogenic bacteria (Anderson, 8). It is a typically single-celled parasite whose body consists of cytoplasm, nucleus or nuclei, ingested materials, and vacuoles (Craig, 13). Endamoeba histolytica has four stages in its life cycle: the trophozoite or motile stage, the precystic stage, the cystic stage, and the metacystic stage (Anderson, 39). ...read more.


The risk of infection increases in areas of crowded and unsanitary living conditions. Traveling to another country also increases the risk. Those who practice the combination of anal-oral sex increase their risk of being infected with amebiasis (MDE, 2). Throughout the United States and the world, all cases of amebiasis are not being diagnosed properly. Anderson states the reason for this is that the incidence of significant symptoms and signs of amebiasis is significantly low and interpreting symptoms is difficult (32). Symptoms include constipation in early stages, followed by intermittent diarrhea. Other symptoms may be gas and abdominal bloating, or abdominal cramps and tenderness. Fever may accompany the disease. Sometimes, mucus and blood is found in the stool of the infected person. A person may find himself or herself incessantly fatigued, with aching muscles. If the amebiasis attacks the liver, symptoms may include tenderness over the liver and right side of the abdomen as well as jaundice. (MDE, 1). Loss of weight and impaired appetite may be some symptoms (Anderson, 199). Symptoms of amebiasis can appear anywhere from a few weeks to a few years (CDC, 1). Sometimes, however, no symptoms are present. ...read more.


Chiniofon, a drug also sold under the name of yatren or anayodin, is a very efficient amebicide if administered properly, with virtually no toxicity. Craig said that chiniofon should be preferred to any of the other chemical because it is less toxic and can be used in mass treatment safely and effectively (284). Modern treatments of amebiasis include drugs such as metronidazole, tetracycline, or emetine hydrochloride (Thomas, 67). Antibiotics are probably the most common treatments today (CDC, 2). Repeated treatment at intervals of up to three months is recommended to ensure elimination of all protozoan. Preventing infection of amebiasis is relatively easy, requiring only careful hygienic practices. Washing hands before eating and after using the toilet; boiling water that could be contaminated; avoiding raw, unpeeled fruits and vegetables are all ways to prevent amebiasis. Being extra careful when eating out and traveling and practicing safe sex also decreases the risk of infection. Early detection of amebiasis infection and adequate treatment keep the infection from spreading to other people. Ultimately, prevention of amebiasis is related directly to proper disposal and treatment of human excrement (Craig, 311). Therefore, prohibiting use of human feces as fertilizer; keeping insects out of food supplies; keeping water supply free of pollutants; and finally, disposing sewage safely all ensures the prevention of transmission of amebiasis. ...read more.

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