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aterials in the Body - fluid balance assigment

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´╗┐Task 2 States of matter Matter is material that has substance and occupies space. There are three different types of matter these are, Solid, Liquid, Gas, and Solid matter Bone, cartilage and skin are materials that are solids this is because the atoms/molecules are packed tightly together that the motion is reduced to a very tiny vibration. Liquid matter Blood, tissue fluid, lymph and urine are all liquid this is because they can flow, the atoms/molecules are further apart then in a solid and so the atoms have more movement, resulting in flowing. Liquids take shape from their container whether this is a vessel such as in blood and lymph. Gases Gases also occur in the human body, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are common constituents of the air that we breathe in. The atoms/molecules are much further apart from each other and are able to move about a lot more freely. http://www.astarmathsandphysics.com/o_level_physics_notes/fg0-7645-5430-1_0201.jpg this picture shows the different molecules for solid, liquids and gases. http://www.astarmathsandphysics.com/o_level_physics_notes/o_level_physics_notes_solids_liquids_and_gases.html Materials Particulate material Particles such as dust from coal can reach even the tiniest air passages, causing scarring and disease. Such particles are very fine, particulate material can enter any open wound and rest in deeper tissues, where the macrophages will attempt to engulf and digest the partials. ...read more.


The glucose is absorbed by active transport into the villi, to be passed into the bloodstream and taken around the body. Exoctosis and Endocytosis, The movement of macromolecules such as proteins or polysaccharides into or out of the cell this is called bulk transport. There are two types of bulk transport these are called exocytosis and exocytosis and they both require energy (ATP). In exocytosis, materials are exported out of the cell via secretory vesicles. In this process, the Golgi complex packages macromolecules into transport vesicles that travel to and fuse with the plasma membrane. This fusion causes the vesicle to spill its contents out of the cell. Exocytosis is important in expulsion of waste materials out of the cell and in the secretion of cellular products such as digestive enzymes or hormones. http://www.wyzant.com/Images/Help/Biology_Exocytosis_2.jpg Endocytosis, on the other hand, is the process by which materials move into the cell. There are three types of endocytosis:phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. In phagocytosis or ?cellular eating,? the cell?s plasma membrane surrounds a macromolecule or even an entire cell from the extracellular environment and buds off to form a food vacuole or phagosome. ...read more.


Electrochemical gradient The exterior of the cell membranes carries a positive charge the interior of the cell membrane carries a negative charge. This means that negatively charged molecules and ions such as chloride ions have a tendency to be pushed out of the cell on the other hand positively charged molecules and ions such as sodium and potassium have a tendency to be attracted into the cell. The difference in charge between the inside and outside of the membrane is sometimes called the membrane potential. Permeability of cell membrane Molecules and ions with a charge diffuse across the phospholipid bilayer very slowly or not at all, non-charged molecules diffuse quite rapidly as they can dissolve in the fatty acid chain part of the bilayer. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and steroids can move across easily in this way. The fatty avid chain part of the bilayer therefore acts like a selective barrier for cretin things to enter. Channel proteins Channel proteins are almost impermeable to charged ions we know this because over time scientist has been doing experiments using artificial bilayer with no channel proteins have shown it to be almost impermeable to charged ions. Real membranes however are permeable to these ions this proves channel proteins are essential in the transport of charged ions; these proteins are specific to the ions they transport. http://uk.ask.com/question/how-does-the-cell-size-affect-the-transport-of-materials-into-the-cell http://www.wyzant.com/resources/lessons/science/biology/endocytosis-and-exocytosis ...read more.

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