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Cache level 3 unit two. Development from conception to 16 years.

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Introduction

Unit Two: Development from conception to 16 years. Birth to 3 years & 3 to 7 years. There are many factors which affect children's development, such as diet as children's diet affects their ability to keep healthy and well. A good diet makes a difference to children's ability to concentrate and learn, love and affection, this makes a significant difference to physical well-being, behaviour and learning. Sleep is vital for cognitive function and for growth; lack of sleep affects children's relationships with others as it makes a difference to behaviour and control of emotions. Stimulation is important in order for the brain to develop and create opportunities to physically use the body. Children's environment is often linked to money, as the place in which children grow up affect their development, as low-income families often have poor access to housing and facilities within the community, and that means fewer opportunities for practice of new skills. Medical conditions and illness can affect children on many different levels, some may have to take time off school or restricted on what they are able to do. This affects them in many areas of development Physical development: Physical development is the gradual process by which children develop the use and control of muscles, gaining a wider range of movements. Motor skills are actions that involve the movement of muscles in the body controlled by the brain. Gross motor skills are larger movements involving the arm, leg, foot muscles or the entire body, such as crawling, running, jumping. From birth to 1 year, physical development is at its fastest, as the child is developing all their muscles and skills they need for later life. It starts with the reflex action, as a baby they have 7 primary reflexes which are: Moro reflex, which is the startle reflex, walking reflex, grasping, rooting, asymmetric tonic neck and the swallowing and sucking reflex. ...read more.

Middle

There are many ways in which to apply Vvgotsky's theory to practice, firstly Vvgotsky's saw that adults need to be actively involved with children and young people; he suggested that children and young people should tackle problems at a higher level when working in groups rather than individually. In practise this means as an early year's practitioner, you might organise group activities that require problem solving, and you need to interact with children and young people and encourage their thinking. This could affect practice as practitioners should engage in child-centred practice and also adult-led practice, "Early year's practitioners should lead children's learning by interacting with children when appropriate". Tassoni p. This is because as Vvgotsky's theory shows that children do need adults help in order to maximize their abilities and skills but they also need practitioners to understand their needs and interests in order for the children to develop as much as they can. "If early year's practitioners view their role as that of the nurturer and respond to each child individually, then their practice will be truly child-cantered." There are many factors which might influence observations, such as emotional factors such as children who have just fallen out with a friend, parents are splitting up or a child who is celebrating a birthday, physical factors such as children being tired or hungry will find it hard to concentrate. The environment around the child and the practitioner can affect the observation as it might disturb the child/adult such as a doorbell ringing or new children entering the room which could distract the child or the adult. And there are also many other factors such as the child are interested in the activity or the child behaving different amongst groups such as them talking and getting distracted or being shy. There are many different observation techniques, they all have different advantages and disadvantages and they are all good for different situations and for different things you are observing the child for. ...read more.

Conclusion

As a practitioner observations will be evaluated so that the information can be passed on to the parents or so you can plan more effective activities for the child's needs/ interests. Norms of development or milestones are often used to help interpret observations. Using this helps you as a practitioner realise that either the child's development is typical of their age group or if they are ahead of their development or if the child needs further support. Normative development is usually used in early years as early intervention and identification helps make significant difference for later outcomes in the child's life, this is because development is interlinked. Looking at normative development can also help you as a practitioner aware of what the child needs to go on and do and will help when planning activities and when checking that opportunities and challenges are being provided for that child. Also progress with children is important, even though normative development is very useful, you need to take into consideration that every child is different and not all of them conform to the same development progresses at the same time as others do, as long as they are making progress its not a cause for concern but it is wise to keep checking that the progress is consistent and on-going. Practitioners also need to be un-biased in their observations with what they see and what they don't see. Practitioners will have to carry out observations on children to assess them against curriculum guidance. These observations usually are planned with this in mind, but there may be occasions when some observations will be done to support records. These profiles and curriculum guidance observations have differences and inconsistencies compared to children's developmental norms and the theories of child development. Theories of development are often used in understanding the reasons children do certain things. This is useful as it helps you see what the child needs so you are able to plan activities and are able to make sure that further experiences and opportunities are provided for their specific needs. ...read more.

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