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Case studies of two individuals. How their health problems were diagnosed and how they are treated.

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I will be first (P3) describing the clinical investigations carried out and measurements made, to diagnose and monitor the disorder in each individual. I will then (M2) explain possible difficulties involved in making a diagnosis from the signs and symptoms displayed by the individuals and the results of their investigations. (P3) Mr. "X", Diabetes type two. During a visit to his G.P. because of his depression, the doctor quickly ascertained that Mr. "X" may have additional problems, as he had all the classic signs of being diabetic, he arranged for Mr. "X" to have blood tests at his local clinic and gave him a further appointment for the following week to discuss the results and their possible implications. On his return to the G.P. he was informed that he had type two diabetes, which is the most common type as 90% of all diagnosed diabetics are type two. He was informed that his condition was manageable with the correct medication and that he should look forward to leading a fit and healthy life provided he took more care of himself, as it is very much down to the individual to eat properly, avoiding the food stuffs which would only antagonize his condition and to exercise regularly. The G.P. gave Mr. "X" a leaflet which contained ten steps to eating well, for patients diagnosed with type two diabetes. They are as followed- 1) Eat at least three meals a day, as in breakfast, lunch and evening meal, and these should be spread out accordingly. This not only helps to control your appetite, but also helps to control your blood glucose levels. 2) ...read more.


He described the change to his diet to be working but also created much more stress as he felt like a child being told what to and what not, to eat. Mr. "X's" digestive system gradually improved soon after a new food intake and different food stuffs as advised, became much more regular, and he felt much less constipation. Also a less fatty diet and a gradual exercise routine i.e. walking to his local shops, to collect the newspaper helped shed excess weight. Mr. "X's" routine is looking much more positive and his heath checkups show a distinct improvement. Mr. "X" is not insulin dependent now as he has realised how much his diet needed to be improved. Although for two months Mr. "X" was being prescribed with oral medication, he found this hard to cope with. He has also handled "bad days" much better than was expected. His daughter often visits, and does Mr. "X's" shopping to make sure he is buying the food stuffs as appropriate to his diet. This gave him much more determination, and also was able to see his grandchild much more regularly, which helped with his depression. Mr. "X" found the "GLUCOMETRE" at first very difficult, as he does not like the sight of blood, although eventually it became a part of life. He adapted to it, and used it as appropriately advised. He completed many goals as was set by his G.P. and this was found to boost his confidence. It is now two years after Mr. ...read more.


Clinical breast examinations are performed by health care professionals, usually inaugurated from around the age of 20, and are a basic part of women's checkups. Mammograms are a special type of x-ray and are used for the detection of changes in breast tissue or abnormal growths. Most growths and body tissue changes do not turn out to be cancerous, but are an early indication of what may be occurring. These tests could lead to ultra sound images being taken which will give an indication as to whether any breast lump found is a cyst (a fluid filled sac that is not cancerous) or a solid mass which may well turn out to be cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is another method used in the early detection of breast cancer. If any of these tests indicate that cancerous tissue may be developing, then there are other tests which can be performed such as breast biopsy. This involves the removal of cells from a suspected area or mass of tissue and performing further clinical tests on the matter removed. The same applies to the sentinel node biopsies, this involves doctors checking a few lymph nodes under the arm in order to ascertain whether the cancer has spread into the lymph system. The sentinel node biopsy will usually be carried out in conjunction with the ductal lavage tests, which checks cells from the milk ducts for precancerous cells. Monitoring and treatment of breast cancer. Modern medicine is a major reason for the high number of women who now survive what was once considered to be a fatal condition. ...read more.

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