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Case Study NHS

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Introduction

What is the NHS? The NHS was set up in 1948 and is now the largest organisation in Europe. It is recognised as one of the best health services in the world by the World Health Organisation but there need to be improvements to cope with the demands of the 21st century. The NHS is changing the way it works to make sure patients always come first. This has brought about some fundamental changes in the way the NHS is structured and the way in which the different organisations within the NHS relate to each other. Below is a diagram of how the NHS in England works with all of the necessary departments in a standard NHS hospital. The diagram was taken from http://www.nhs.uk/England/AboutTheNhs/Default.cmsx What does the NHS provide? The NHS provides a number of services including care trusts which are a means of bringing both health and social care under one organisational structure. Mental health trusts which are designed for people with severe mental problems. NHS trusts foundations which are a new type of hospitals run by local managers, staff and members of the general public. NHS Ambulance Trusts are the local organisations responsible for responding to 999 calls; transporting patients; and increasingly for providing out-of-hours care. Emergency and urgent care is someone who needs emergency or urgent care. Although people can't plan when they have accidents, they need to be sure that, whoever they contact in the NHS is ready and equipped to deal with the accident. ...read more.

Middle

John Saxby. The memorial hospital consists of a main outpatients department which is located at "b" reception on the ground floor, a surgical and ENT outpatients department which is located on the first floor near the "c" reception. A womans centre that is situated on the ground floor and is accessable to the far left hand side of the building, paediatric department which is held on ward 24 and that is found on the second floor. The memorial hospital also has a Ophthalmology department, endoscopy department, urology department and a physiotherapy department. An outpatients consists of doctors, their assistants and nurses, and ancillary staff. It is a department in a hospital where nonurgent ambulatory medial care is provided. There are a number of different types of outpatients departments (OPD's) including ambulatory surgical and medical centres, chemotherapy, employee health services, renal dialysis, and radiology. A surgical outpatients department consists of surgeons, their assistants and nurses and ancillary staff. They see patients that have either been referred from their general practitioners (GP's), other consultants, or their own patients from ward admissions. They can also perform minor procedures such as injecting varicose veins, assessing wounds and removing sutures. An ENT outpatients department is also a department that consists of surgeons, their assistants and nurses and ancillary staff. They see patients that have either been referred from their own general practitioners (GP's), other consultants, or their own patients from ward admissions.They also perform ear syringing, removing foreign bodies, and also cautery to stop nostrils from bleeding. ...read more.

Conclusion

is the skin's outer structure serving a protective function However, the part we can see, the horny layer, is only a minute part of this stratified squamous layer. It is the ultimate result of the keratinisation process and marks the final stage of a 4 to 6 week journey undertaken by the keratinocytes. Human skin is continually being renewed, in contrast with that of reptiles that moult. The desquamation of cells on the skin's surface should naturally be compensated for by renewal of the epidermis, a process undertaken by the keratinocytes (85% of the cells in the epidermis). These possess two properties which successively come into action - the ability to actively divide and the ability to differentiate. The Dermis Made up of 80% water, elastin fibres and collagen floating in a glycoprotein gel, the dermis is the tissue supporting the skin. In contrast with the epidermis, it is vascularised, enabling it to not only provide energy and nutrition to the epidermis but also to play a primordial role in thermoregulation and in healing. The Hypodermis The hypodermis is the innermost and thickest layer of the skin. It invaginates into the dermis and is attached to the latter, immediately above it, by collagen and elastin fibres. It is essentially composed of a type of cells specialised in accumulating and storing fats, known as adipocytes. These cells are grouped together in lobules separated by connective tissue. The skin is the organ that has the most known diseases. Skin diseases can range from simple things such as acne to eczcema or more life threatening things such as skin cancer.Skin cancer is caused by prolonged exposure to the suns damaging rays and occurs in the epidermis. ...read more.

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