Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8

Cholera, Maleria, HIV & Aids, Tuberculosis - The Worldwide Importance of These Diseases

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

Cholera Cholera is an infectious disease cause by bacteria that affects the absorption of water in the small intestine. Sever cases cause violent diarrhoea. It is the huge amount of fluid loss, which makes cholera so dangerous. If the fluid is not replaced the body becomes dehydrated and you could die within twenty-four hours. Treatment of cholera is simple; replace the fluid lost with the right mixture of sugar and salts. Water alone is not very well absorbed. If it is a server case of the disease then admission to hospital may be suggest; they can then replace the fluids straight into the bloodstream via a drip. Cholera is caused by a bacterium called Vibrio Cholerea. The bacterium begins to produce toxins when enough of the bacteria have accumulated in the stomach. It is the toxin produced that causes the disease. The toxin affects the cells of the gastrointestinal tract. This means the affected person does not have ordinary diarrhoea but also losses a large quantity of fluid along with it. Cholera is transmitted through bacteria that are excreted in faeces. If the bacterium comes in contact with drinking water, then it can infect people. If you do not wash your hands after you have been to the toilet then you can also pass the bacteria onto food; this also can cause people to become infected.

Middle

In 1992 a new strain of the cholera disease became apparent. This started the eight epidemic of the disease. Malaria holds a serious risk to health of people living in tropical countries and the number of cases has been on the increase since the 1970's. This increase is also due to the increase of foreign travel meaning the disease is brought back to this country when it has not been prevented before travel. Aids came apparent in 1981 but the infective HIV was recognised years before. Since HIV was discovered the numbers of infected people has risen. Tuberculosis is a threat in both developed and developing countries. It was once thought to have been eradicated, but this was found to be untrue. The social, economic and biological factors in the prevention and control of the named diseases. Cholera can be prevented from spreading by not drinking water that could be contaminated by the pathogen vibrio cholerea. In countries where swage is a problem and the people drink untreated water, such as places like Africa, Asia and South America, then the spread of the disease could be decreased if a proper swage and cleaning system was set up. However this may not be possible because of the lack of funds in the country. Also overcrowded living conditions contribute to the disease spreading because if an uncontaminated person comes in contact with the pathogen they to have a high chance of getting cholera.

Conclusion

These include protein synthesis, synthesis of bacteria walls, plasma membrane function and enzyme actions. Most anti-biotics are made of living cells. However there are some drugs, such as isoniazid, which is used in the treatment of tuberculosis, which is synthetic. Finding the most effective type of anti-biotic for a disease is a fairly straight forward process. It involves growing the infection on an agar plate. Then filter paper disks, that contain the anti-biotic, are placed on the grown cells. You can tell which anti-biotic is the best by measuring the radius where no cells are growing around the filter paper. This photo shows how the selection process is done. Due to the overuse of anti-biotic some people or infections become immune to them. This makes the infection more difficult to treat and also decreases the patient's chances of survival in some cases. The cholera pathogen can be killed by using and anti-biotic, such as doxycycline, but sometimes this is not necessary if you are able to replace the fluids lost with salt water. Tuberculosis is treated with a combination of anti-biotics. A combination is needed to prevent the pathogen becoming resistant to it, which would cause serious consequences to the patient. AIDS / HIV are also treated with a combination of drugs. However anti-biotics do not kill of the infection, mealy slow down its effects. If the anti-biotics are not taken at the correct time of day then resistance to them may be caused. Malaria is not treated with anti-biotics.

The above preview is unformatted text

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • Over 150,000 essays available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Over 180,000 student essays
  • Every subject and level covered
  • Thousands of essays marked by teachers

Related AS and A Level Healthcare

  1. P2 - Physiology of fluid balance

    The plasma membrane has many functions. It is a transporter for a variety of molecules which I have discussed within this assignment. It is also used as an anchor; this means the membrane anchors together in order to maintain the shape of the membrane and generally hold the structure together.

  2. Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease: Tuberculosis and Cystic Fibrosis

    A morbidity rate of about 5-10% is estimated, i.e. 5-10% of individuals infected with the bacilli become sick/infectious at some point in their lives. Globally, the vast majority of TB deaths occur in the developing world, with over half in Asia11. From the distribution map below12 (TPO) we can see that, in 2008, the majority (55%)

  1. Free essay

    binge drinking

    Where as out of the other 4, 3 of them drink at-least once a week. I believe that this is because drinking alcohol at home can cut teenage binge drinking, as most teenagers drink because they want to experience it.

  2. Strageties for prevention of disease

    Choices individuals make about how they live has effect on their health. National and local strategies educate and persuade individuals into making healthy choices. These choices include personal hygiene; influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Washing and changing clothes will help to reduce the number.

  1. Malaria - infection and cure

    This stage usually lasts 2-6 hours. 3- The finally stage is the 'sweating stage' there is marked sweating. The patient feels fatigued and exhausted but will usually fall asleep. The other symptoms slow slight variation according to the type of plasmodium causing the disease, (Shulman, 1997). P. Ovale & P.

  2. Health and Disease

    organisations operate within some set of boundaries or limits, which determines the extents of their willingness and the ability to respond. Establishing boundaries within care settings might include: * An explanation of policies and practices * How long a interview or meeting is to last * Arrangements for the future

  • Over 180,000 essays
    written by students
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to write
    your own great essays

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.