• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Conception and Birth

Extracts from this document...


Task 1, Pass 1 Describe the process of conception, embryonic and foetal growth, and factors that can affect this development. Conception and Birth Conception is the process that occurs as a result of sexual intercourse or IVF (in vitro fertilisation) - in either case, a sex cell from both the male's sperm, and the female's ovum is needed, to create the embryo. The menstrual cycle releases the ovum, and a bad lifestyle can influence the timing of the ovum's release. The menstrual cycle is controlled by the pituitary gland situated in the base of the skull - four different hormones are released over the 28 day cycle, and all of these are essential in the process of conception. When the ovum is released, it is taken in the direction of the fallopian tubes, where the tiny hairs guide the ovum to travel through the tube where it reaches the uterus. If the ovum comes into contact with a male's sperm cell, the sperm will pierce the outer coating of the ovum, before penetrating the nucleus of the ovum. The sperm and ovum then fuse together to create a zygote, one cell. A set of 46 chromosomes is created, 23 chromosomes from the sperm, and 23 chromosomes from the ovum, making 23 pairs - if one chromosome is damaged, a chromosomal abnormality can be created such as Down's syndrome. ...read more.


During the eighth month of pregnancy, the baby continues it's growth, by week 35 it weighs 2800g, and gains around 280g per week from this time. The head grows more than the rest of the body to allow for rapid brain growth, and the fine downy hair starts to disappear from the body. The baby now also swallows, urinates, and can make breathing movements. Glycogen forms in the baby's liver which the baby uses, along with it's fat reserves, during birth as a source of energy - it also helps while the baby is establishing a feeding pattern. The head usually engages in the pelvis at this time. The final month of pregnancy (weeks 37-40) provides the final preparations and changes to both mother and baby's bodies, the amniotic fluid reduces while the baby is growing to fill the space in the amniotic sac, and at 37 weeks, the baby weighs about 3kg, and is lying head down - birth will occur any time between weeks 38-42. Developmental Influences The lifestyle choices that a woman makes while trying to become pregnant is incredibly important for both her and the baby's development, for instance, diet is a huge factor. In the first two months of pregnancy, consuming too much Vitamin A can increase the risk of the baby having a birth defect, and an all round balanced nutritional diet is essential to ...read more.


����__ o Raw meat and poultry o Unpasteurised milk o Untreated water o Raw eggs and raw egg products These should be avoided due to the risk of campylobacter and salmonella, which can cause food poisoning, that may lead to a miscarriage. __ o Unwashed raw fruit and vegetables o Raw/Undercooked meat o Cured meats o Unpasteurised goats' milk or cheese These can cause toxoplasmosis, which is an infection caused by a parasite that is found in cat faeces, raw meat, and vegetables with soil on them. __ o Liver o Liver products, e.g. Pate Too much Vitamin A can harm an unborn baby; no high dose multivitamins should be taken throughout pregnancy. __ o Shark, swordfish, and marlin - high mercury level can damage nervous system of unborn baby, and avoid shellfish, to reduce risk of food poisoning. __ It is important that a woman should avoid consuming more than 200mg of caffeine per day while pregnant, as the body absorbs iron differently when caffeine is an influence. High levels of caffeine can result in a baby with a low birth weight or a miscarriage. This means women should not consume more than two mugs of tea or five cans of cola or four chocolate bars. Flu and cold remedies also contain caffeine. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Unit 4-Human lifespan development

    Delayed puberty is when a girl over 13 years of age or a boy over 14 or 15 years of age has not shown signs of puberty. Early or delayed puberty may be caused by certain medical conditions. Low self-esteem: Your child may not feel good about himself, especially during early adolescence.

  2. Care for Babies

    to four weeks old and can last for three months, there are no medicines to treat colic although you can buy colic drops to help relieve abdominal symptoms. Stimulating Learning Newborns display a number of reflexes; these are automatic responses to specific stimuli such as the rooting and sucking reflex, this will help your baby find its mother's breast.

  1. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    in the posterior wall and showed no lymphadenopathy. Literature review showed no mention of using Magnetic resonance imaging scanner as a diagnostic tool. An article indicated that MR findings have reported no significant difference between lymphoma and carcinoma. Staging Ann Arbor staging system for Hodgkin's Disease is used commonly for staging extranodal lymphoma.

  2. Female hormones

    There is indication that proper hormonal balance necessary for a woman's body to function healthily is being interfered with by a number of factors. Research has revealed that a good portion of women in their 30s (and some even younger), long before the onset of menopause, on occasion will not ovulate during their menstrual month.

  1. Human growth and development from conception to birth

    The tooth buds are developing and sweat glands are formimg on palms and soles. Because the fetus is developing reflexes such as sucking and swallowing, the fetus may begin to suck his or her thumb. At this stage the skin is bright pink, transparent and covered with soft, downy hair and the sex is now identifiable.

  2. unit 4 - p1 Development from conception onwards

    It absorbs nutrients from the woman?s bloodstream. The cord carries nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and takes wastes away from the fetus. 11-12 weeks The fetus is now measured from the top of its head to its buttocks. This is called crown-rump length.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work