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Coordination & control

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Task 1 The endocrine system is made up of glands, which secrete hormones into the body. The glands in the endocrine system are the pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pineal, pituitary and testes/ovaries (Farr, 2003). There are four main functions to the endocrine system, which are to maintain the correct levels and concentrations of substances within the body, this is known as homeostasis. It works in partnership with the nervous system to help the body react to stress. Also the body's growth rate, sexual development and reproduction are functioned by the endocrine system. Below is a diagram showing the hormones produced by each of the glands within the endocrine system. Adrenaline Adrenaline also known as epinephrine is secreted through the adrenal glands and is naturally produced in times where stress is high or in physically exhilarating situations (McGuigan, 2003). When this hormone is secreted into the body it causes the person to have increased heart rate, increased breathing, an increase in the metabolic rate and dilated pupils and this is so that the body is ready to respond to the situation, which has arisen. ...read more.


If this occurs it can cause weight loss/gain, hyperactivity, fatigue and many other symptoms. Task 2 It is the kidneys task to excrete waste products, maintain homeostasis and release hormones. The kidneys are surrounded by adipose and fibrous connective tissue to help keep them in place and also to protect them. Within the kidneys are three main areas, which are the cortex, which is the outer layer, the medulla is situated in the inner region of the kidney and then there are the renal pyramids. There are three tasks, which the kidneys perform in order to separate different components within the blood. These are; filtration, reabsorption and secretion. All of these processes occur within the nephrons. The kidneys contain a million nephrons and are functional units within the kidney (Williams, 2000). Small molecules are filtered from the blood, such as salt; these small molecules then get recycled so that any molecules needed in the blood can be reabsorbed before the remainder of the molecules are passed from the tubules/ureter as urine, which is stored in the bladder. ...read more.


It depends on the amount of water that is ingested. Other factors affecting this are salt intake and how much sweat is being produced. Task 3 By drinking distilled water the participants are increasing the pressure within their bladder therefore forcing urine into the urethra, which then causes urination. This is due to the sensory neurone creating action potential and stimulating stretch receptors as the urine enters into the bladder. This action potential is carried through parasympathetic fibres causing the bladder to contract and skeletal muscle to relax. This process is known as micturition. The volume of urine decreases after three hours due to urine being released from the bladder that then releases pressure and causes lower action potential. A lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes diabetes inspidius. Large amounts of dilute urine and the increase of osmolality of body fluids is caused. Due to small amounts of ADH most of the filtrate is reabsorbed into the distal tubules and so it becomes part of the urine. The kidneys are stimulated by ADH to retain water and reducing blood. The frequency and volume produced are therefore reduced. ?? ?? ?? ?? Nicola Caufield Coordination & Control Claire Martin Access to Health Group 1 ...read more.

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