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Dementia - research report for P1 and P2.

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P1, P2, Dementia This information booklet will firstly for my P1 contain the definition of dementia signs and symptoms and the signs and symptoms of other conditions that are mistaken for dementia. Additionally it will show the way dementia is tested and dementia in younger people. Secondly for my P2, this booklet will contain information on different types of dementia, their common signs and symptoms, and the possible effects of dementia on individuals and their families. Q1) The term 'dementia' describes a set of symptoms which include loss of memory, mood changes, problems with communication and reasoning .These symptoms occur when the brain is damaged by certain diseases, the most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease but there are several other causes. Most types of dementia have similar symptoms including * Difficulty in communicating- an individual may have problems in making themselves understood for example forgetting to recognise people or objects, having Problems with understanding like what is being said and not being able to act on instructions. * Loss of memory ? this is often said to be an early sign of dementia? this particularly affects short-term memory, for example forgetting what happened earlier in the day, not being able to recall conversations, being repetitive or forgetting the way home from the shops. Long-term memory is usually still quite good. , A change of personality- people who are finding it hard to function with a progressively limited thinking capacity may overreact to normal everyday situations or tasks or can become abusive or aggressive. Additionally some individuals? personalities? change dramatically, people who have never used bad language start using bad language and some people lose all their social inhibitions and behave in ways that they would have been shameful about before the illness. These mood changes can make a person feel, sad, frightened or angry about what is happening to them. * Loss of practical skills ? once known as easy tasks such as putting clothes on and off feeding and washing can become very difficult or almost impossible as the dementia progresses. ...read more.


People are more aware they have vascular than Alzheimer?s disease, this is because of being able to see on brain scans the poor blood flow and where a person has had small strokes. * Dementia with Lewy bodies (Fronto-Temporal) is the third most common cause of dementia in the UK and more common in men. Early symptoms of Lewy dementia can show symptoms of Parkinson?s disease which include shaking in the hands, stiffness and not being able to get about as good as before. Symptoms also show spells of confusion, hallucinations (seeing things that are not there such as animals or people and a rapid decline to death. Rarer types of dementia * Pick?s disease- affects the front of the person?s brain leading to loss of judgement and inhibitions. Pick disease is a rare kind of dementia that is alike Alzheimer disease, except that it affect only certain parts of the brain. In the damaged areas of the brain, People with Pick disease have abnormal substances (called Pick bodies and Pick cells) inside the nerve cells. Pick bodies and Pick cells contain an abnormal form of a protein called tau. This protein is found in all nerve cells. But some people with Pick disease have an abnormal amount or type of this protein. * Huntington?s disease is an inherited degenerative brain disease which is slowly progressive and usually starts between the ages 30 -50. First Symptoms include slight twitching of the limbs or muscles of the face. This type of disease usually shows with frontal symptoms which affect problems with planning, thinking and personality changes. Not so much memory problems at first. * Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Generally happens in old age. It is caused by a protein called a prion. The risk factor of this disease is not yet known although has known to run in families. Severe difficulties with movement and blindness happens quickly. ...read more.


* A person could do some simple stretches in the home for example, by using a couple of tins in each hands used as weights. * Exercise DVDs such as ?Tai chi?, this could help with a person?s balance and at the same time exercising. * Going out for a walk, maybe a place where it is not too crowded. * Gardening, simply pulling weeds can be a satisfying source of exercise. * Swimming is not only good exercise but relaxing and may relieve stress that dementia may be causing. * Cleaning in the home * Exercise classes for people with dementia can be fun and a person can socialise at the same time, and maybe talk to each other about their dementia helping them to feel they are not alone. www.everydayhealth.com To encourage a person to exercise, may be in a care home or daycentre there could be an exercise class that is not too strenuous with a persuading leader that everyone gets involved in. Carer that go out to peoples home should try to do exercise with them whether it be sitting down exercise or just taking them for a walk on a regular basis. www.healthcaretimes.com * Abuse Explain why it is important to have an understanding of abuse. * Give examples of how to involve family and friends in safeguarding individuals with dementia * Give examples of assistive technologies available to minimise risk and explain how they are used * Explain why individuals with dementia are at increased risk of falls. Older people are vulnerable to abuse, especially those who are unwell, frail, confused and unable either to stand up for themselves or keep track of their affairs. Is it important to know the signs of abuse in order to give good care to the person with dementia. Mentally ill people are four times more likely to be victims of violence. Older people with mental health needs are at greater risk of abuse than other groups of older people. ...read more.

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