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Describe reasons why individuals may experience additional needs.

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Mia Nicole Lock BTEC N/D in Health and Social Care Year 2 Unit 26 - Karen James Assignment 1 Caring for individuals with additional needs P1. Describe reasons why individuals may experience additional needs. There are many different factors that cause additional needs. Causes can be due to genetic, developmental, environmental, accident or other factors. Genetic factors Down syndrome is one of the most known genetic causes. It occurred in 23.81 per 10,000 births in the UK back in 2002 (University of Ulster, 2003) (http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/d/down_syndrome/stats.htm) Everyone has 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell, 46 altogether with one of each pair coming from the mother and father. For Down syndrome to be present an extra chromosome is formed taking their total to 47, professor Jerome Lejeune discovered this. Down syndrome was first described in 1866 by a Dr John Langdon Down; this is how Down syndrome got its name. This particular genetic factor is also present in a baby from the moment of conception. The cause for the extra chromosome is still unknown and there is also no cure for the condition. Although it is not known why this happens, we do know that babies have a much higher risk of Down syndrome when they are born to older mothers. ...read more.


Hearing loss Because individuals with Down syndrome are at risk of developing hearing loss as a child and as an adult it's important to have regular hearing checks throughout their life to ensure everything is ok. If an individual does have a hearing impairment they may benefit from hearing aids, but will mostly be helped by adapting their environment for example reducing background noise or the use of sign language to support their speech. Vision Individuals with Down syndrome may also have vision impairments therefore it's also important to have regular vision checks. Vision impairments in a person with Down syndrome can include cataracts and nystagmus which is a continuous rapid eye movement or wobble. They may also not be able to see sharp, clear images at different distances like a child without Down syndrome could. These defects can be corrected by surgery if necessary and by wearing glasses. (http://www.down-syndrome.org/information/development/overview/?page=5) Developmental factor Autistic spectrum disorder which is also most commonly known as Autism affects over half a million people in the UK. (http://www.autism.org.uk/nas/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=235&a=3432) Understanding and diagnosing Autism can be very difficult because it is not a visible condition. ...read more.


The additional needs of people with meningitis Unfortunately some babies and young children experience learning difficulties and behavioural problems following meningitis. These difficulties can usually sort themselves out. Meningitis may cause additional needs because of the short-term effects it has such as: * General tiredness * Persistent headaches * Clumsiness * Giddiness * Sore or stiff joints Meningitis can also cause permanent damage such as: * Memory problems or loss * Concentration problems * Hearing loss or deafness * Damage in inner ear causing balance problems * Partial loss of vision or blindness * Severe brain damage * Epilepsy * Emotional difficulties (Karen James - Class Handout 2009 - Meeting additional requirements for children's care, learning and development) Accident An accident such as an injury to the head can cause many problems. These problems could be minor such as headaches and possibly stitches due to a cut. Major problems can cause additional needs because they may require more professional help. Major problems depend on which area of the brain is affected but it can include: * Memory loss * Difficulties with concentration * Personality disorders * Depression * Difficulty with speech * Difficulty with movement with a particular body part * Paralysis (Karen James - Class Handout 2009 - Meeting additional requirements for children's care, learning and development) Other The additional needs of people with ...read more.

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This assignment describes reasons why individuals may experience additional needs. The work shows an understanding of these reasons. Down syndrome has been covered in detail. The remaining categories have been described but the descriptions of autism, meningitis and head injury could be extended to give some description of how the additional needs could be supported, as per the comments on the work. The assignment could be further improved by extending the introduction to include a definition of additional needs and the three categories physical needs, mental needs and learning needs. One other genetic condition could be covered such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell. Referencing has been provided, but this could be more specific in places and a reference list has not been produced.

Marked by teacher Jenny Spice 06/06/2013

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