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Describe the application of biological perspectives in health and social care. Discuss Gesells theory on how a childs development is considered to be biologically programmed.

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Introduction

Unit 8: Assignment 8.6 P6: Describe the application of biological perspectives in health and social care. 8.6a: Discuss Gesell's theory on how a child's development is considered to be biologically programmed. Arnold Gesell used the term maturation to describe the process of changes that take place during our lifespan. These might be changes in what we do: babies sit up, they walk, and they begin to talk. These might also be physical changes, as our bodies grow and develop from childhood to adulthood. Maturational changes are biologically programmed and come about as a result of our genes, said Gesell. If a change takes place as a result of maturation, it should be universal which it will happen in all people, sequential which it will follow the same predictable pattern and biological which it does not need any environmental influences to make it happen. If changes occur in all children, in the same order, and as a result of some kind of biological unfolding, it should be possible to map this process out. We can work out developmental norms that the ages at which children normally are able to sit up, walk and begin to talk. ...read more.

Middle

Gesell's classic study involved twin girls, both given training for motor skills but one given training for longer than the other. There was no measurable difference in the age at which either child acquired the skills, suggesting that development had happened in a genetically programmed way, irrespective of the training given. A child learns to whether or not an adult teaches him/her, suggesting physical development at least is largely pre-programmed. There was no measurable difference in the age at which either child acquired the skills, suggesting that development had happened in a genetically programmed way, irrespective of the training given. A child learns to whether or not an adult teaches him/her, suggesting physical development at least is largely pre-programmed. By studying thousands of children over many years, Gesell came up with "milestones of development" - stages by which normal children can accomplish different tasks. These are still used today. Assignment 8.6c Describe how the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system can affect a person's behaviour. The nervous system has two parts: central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, which is made up of the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, comprising the sensory and motor nerves. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therapists use a variety of strategies, including: * language intervention activities. In these exercises an SLP will interact with a child by playing and talking. The therapist may use pictures, books, objects, or ongoing events to stimulate language development. The therapist may also model correct pronunciation and use repetition exercises to build speech and language skills. * articulation therapy. Articulation, or sound production, exercises involve having the therapist model correct sounds and syllables for a child, often during play activities. The level of play is age-appropriate and related to the child's specific needs. The SLP will physically show the child how to make certain sounds, such as the "r" sound, and may demonstrate how to move the tongue to produce specific sounds. * oral motor/feeding therapy. The SLP will use a variety of oral exercises, including facial massage and various tongue, lip, and jaw exercises, to strengthen the muscles of the mouth. The SLP may also work with different food textures and temperatures to increase a child's oral awareness during eating and swallowing Speech-language experts agree that parental involvement is crucial to the success of a child's progress in speech or language therapy. Parents are an extremely important part of their child's therapy program, and help determine whether it is a success. Kids who complete the program quickest and with the most lasting results are those whose parents have been involved ...read more.

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