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Describe the cause of infection- infection prevention and control

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Introduction

P1- Describe the cause of infection Infection is caused by micro-organisms which are everywhere i.e. skin, air, dust, water. They normally occur when body tissues are invaded by an infectious agent, such as micro-organisms (organisms that can only be seen through a microscope)for example, bacteria, viruses and fungi) and parasitic organisms (such as lice and mites). Pathogens are also a kind of infectious agent that are capable of causing disease and the toxins that they produce cause the signs and symptoms that we associate with and infectious illness for example headache, vomiting, feeling faint. (Michie.V, Baker.L, 2008). Pathogenic organisms are a type of organisms that can cause human diseases. They vary in size and type. They types that I am going to be talking about are; bacterial, viral, fungi and parasitic organisms. Non- pathogenic organisms are also called normal floras. They are a type of micro-organisms offer protection for the body and they do not cause any harm. The main role of the normal floras is to prevent pathogens (organisms that cause disease) ...read more.

Middle

Viruses differ from bacteria, because in order for a virus to cause a disease, they have to enter a living 'host' cell, whereas in bacteria only need to multiply until there is a reasonable amount to cause a disease. The virus changes the genetic coding of the host by releasing its DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or its RNA (ribonucleic acid). This eventually causes the viral coding to separate from the host cells and reproduce in other cells, the host then dies and the new virus is then released to find more host cells. A virus also does not have any metabolic activity therefore they cannot produce any waste. (P.Ayling,2007) Mumps is an example of a localised virus (commonly a paramyxovirus) that causes swelling and tenderness of the salivary glands. It is transmitted through airborne contaminated droplets from coughs and sneezes of those who are infected. It can leave a person contagious for approximately five days and it usually affects children between the ages if 5 and 14 but in some cases it can also affect adults. ...read more.

Conclusion

They are not thought to transmit any serious illness to humans however they can cause severe irritation and a feeling of discomfort. Hygiene is essential if you want to get rid of them. (Ayling.P, 2007) (Michie.V, Baker.L, 2008). Normal floras are micro-organisms which provide protection for the body and do it no harm. There presence is very important in prevention pathogens from colonizing the skin or the intestines. This is because the pathogens prefer to grow where there are no other organisms to compete with. Transient floras are organisms that easily transferable to another person or surface, for example by salmonella found on raw meat, can remain on the hands for a long period of time, which increases the risk of cross-contamination. (Ayling.P, 2007) There are different stages by which transient floras succeed in causing infection are termed the chain of infection. The main purpose for this chain is to show how pathogens move from one host to the next. This chain has to broken in order to prevent. (Ayling.P, 2007) Below is a diagram of the chain of infection; ( http://faculty.ccc.edu/tr-infectioncontrol/images/chain.jpg) ...read more.

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